References  Łozowicka B, Hrynko I, Kaczyński P. Occurrence of pesticide residues in fruit from Podlasie (Poland) in 2012. J Plant Protection Res. 2015;55(2):142-150. DOI: 10.1515/jppr-2015-0018  Matyjaszczyk E. Active substances used in plant protection in Poland after the European Union accession. J Plant Protection Res. 2011;51(3):217-224. DOI: 10.2478/v10045-011-0037-5.  Stenersen J. Chemical Pesticides: Mode of Action and Toxicology. N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton: Florida CRC Press LLC; 2004. https
Volodymyr Patyka, Natalia Buletsa, Lidiya Pasichnyk, Natalia Zhitkevich, Antonina Kalinichenko, Tatiyana Gnatiuk and Lyudmyla Butsenko
Diana Larisa Vlădoiu, Marioara Nicoleta Filimon, Vasile Ostafe and Adriana Isvoran
References  Carriger JF, Rand GM, Gardinali PR, Perry WB, Tompkins MS, Fernandez AM. Pesticides of potential ecological concern in sediment from South Florida Canals: An ecological risk prioritization for aquatic arthropods. Soil Sediment Contam. 2006;15:21-45. DOI: 10.1080/15320380500363095.  Hussain S, Siddique T, Saleem M, Arshad M, Khalid A. Impact of pesticides on soil microbial diversity, enzymes and biochemical reactions. Adv Agron. 2009;102:159-200. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-2113(09)01005-0.  Hussain S, Arshad M, Saleem M, Khalid A
Vít Novotný and Jiří Barek
. Physiological and biochemical modes of action of the diphenylether aclonifen. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2009;93:65-71. DOI: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2008.11.008.  Scrano L, Bufo SA, D’Auria M, Meallier P, Behechti A, Shramm KW. Photochemistry and photoinduced toxicity of acifluorfen, a diphenyl-ether herbicide. J Environ Qual. 2002;31:268-274. DOI: 10.2134/jeq2002.0268.  Teshima R, Nakamura R, Nakajima O, Hachisuka A, Sawada J-I. Effect of two nitrogenous diphenyl ether pesticides on mast cell activation. Toxicol Lett. 2004;150:277-283. DOI: 10
Katarína Kráľová and Josef Jampílek
W, Fan WL, Vesprini D, Narod SA. Cancer Causes & Control. 2004;15:399-418. DOI: 10.1023/B:CACO.0000027505.32564.c2.  Sikka SC, Gurbuz N. Reproductive toxicity of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. In: Gupta RC, editor. Toxicology & Organophosphate & Carbamate Compounds. London: Elsevier Academic Press; 2006:447-462.  Calaf GM, Echiburu-Chau C, Roy D. Int J Oncol. 2009;35:1061-1068. DOI: 10.3892/ijo_00000421.  Calaf GM, Roy D. Int J Mol Med. 2007;19:741-750.  Ventura C, Nunez MA
Elżbieta Wołejko, Urszula Wydro and Tadeusz Łoboda
. Microbial Biodegradation and Bioremediation. Elsevier Inc. 2014, 455-495. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-800021-2.00020-0  Rayu S, Karpozaus DG, Singh BK. Emerging technologies in bioremediation: constraints and opportunities. Biodegradation. 2012;23:917-926. DOI: 10.1007/s10532-012-9576-3.  Chen M, Xu P, Zeng G, Yang C, Huang D, Zhang J. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals by composting: Applications, microbes and future research needs. Biotech Adv. 2015
The decrease of seed quality during storage is strongly associated with damage caused by free radicals. Some compounds of natural origin, known due to their antioxidative and antifungal properties, may be potentially used in organic production for seed treatment as an alternative to pesticides. The aim of the experiment was to study an ability of hydrogen peroxide and organic acid to improve germination, vigour and health of non-deteriorated and deteriorated zinnia seeds. Two seed samples, cv. Illumination and Orys, varying in initial infestation with fungi were tested. For deterioration seeds were kept at 30°C and 80% RH for 30 days. Seed quality tests were performed before and after deterioration for controls and seeds soaked in 3.0% hydrogen peroxide solution and in 1.0 and 5.0% solutions of ascorbic and lactic acids for 10, 30 and 60 min. The controls were untreated seeds, seeds soaked in 0.2% solution of Kaptan zawiesinowy 50 WP for 30 min and seeds soaked in distilled water for 10, 30 and 60 min. Treating zinnia seeds with organic acids more significantly affected seed germination and health after deterioration than before, and improvement of germination capacity was usually correlated with decrease of the percentage of abnormal diseased seedlings. Deterioration had no influence on mean germination time, whereas in particular cases treating seeds with hydrogen peroxide and organic acids negatively affected this parameter. After deterioration regardless of treatment increased number of seeds free from fungi. Lactic acid followed by hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid effectively limited growth of A. alternata, A. zinnia and Fusarium spp. on zinnia seeds, however at higher concentration negatively affected seed germination and vigour. Moreover, treating seeds with hydrogen peroxide and organic acids many a time increased seeds infestation with B. cinerea.
Małgorzata Baćmaga, Jan Kucharski, Jadwiga Wyszkowska, Monika Tomkiel and Agata Borowik
References  Tao L, Yang H. Fluroxypyr biodegradation in soils by multiple factors. Environ Monit Assess. 2011;175:227-238. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-010-1508-2.  Zhang HB, Luo YM, Zhao QG, Wong MH, Zhang GL. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in Hong Kong soils. Chemosphere. 2006;63:633-641. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.08.006.  Emmerling C, Liebner C, Haubold-Rosar M, Katzur J, Schvoder D. Impact of application of organic west materials of microbial and enzyme activities of nine soil in the lusetion coal mining region. Plant Soil. 2000
Ewa Olkowska, Marek Ruman, Anna Kowalska and Żaneta Polkowska
Non-ionic surface active agents are a diverse group of chemicals which have an uncharged polar head and a non-polar tail. They have different properties due to amphiphilic structure of their molecules. Commercial available non-ionic surfactants consist of the broadest spectrum of compounds in comparison with other types of such agents. Typically, non-ionic compounds found applications in households and industry during formulation of cleaning products, cosmetics, paints, preservative coatings, resins, textiles, pulp and paper, petroleum products or pesticides. Their are one of the most common use class of surfactants which can be potential pollution sources of the different compartment of environment (because of they widely application or discharging treated wastewaters to surface water and sludge in agricultural). It is important to investigate the behavior, environmental fate of non-ionic surfactants and their impact on living organisms (they are toxic and/or can disrupt endocrine functions). To solve such problems should be applied appropriated analytical tools. Sample preparation step is one of the most critical part of analytical procedures in determination of different compounds in environmental matrices. Traditional extraction techniques (LLE - for liquid samples; SLE - for solid samples) are time and solvent-consuming. Developments in this field result in improving isolation efficiency and decreasing solvent consumption (eg SPE and SPME - liquid samples or PLE, SFE and MAE - solid samples). At final determination step can be applied spectrophotometric technique, potentiometric titrametration or tensammetry (determination total concentration of non-ionic surfactants) or chromatographic techniques coupled with appropriated detection techniques (individual analytes). The literature data concerning the concentrations of non-ionic surfactants in the different compartments of the environment can give general view that various ecosystems are polluted by those compounds.
, Anh NV, van der Bruggen B. To what extent are pesticides removed from surface water during coagulation-flocculation? Water Environ J. 2008;22:217-223. DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-6593.2008.00128.x.  Li X, Peng P, Zhanga S, Man R, Sheng G, Fu J. Removal of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans by three coagulants in simulated coagulation processes for drinking water treatment. J Hazard Mater. 2009;162:180-185. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.05.030.  Bodzek M, Dudziak M. Removal of natural estrogens and
Ewa Olkowska, Marek Ruman, Anna Kowalska and Żaneta Polkowska
Surface active agents (SAA) with negative charge of polar group are named as anionic compounds. They are the main constituent of most products containing synthetic surfactants. The linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), alkyl ethoxysulfates (AES) and alkyl sulfates (AS) are typically applied from this class of compounds. Those surfactants are ingredients of household detergents and cleaners, laundry detergents, cosmetic etc. Moreover they can be applied in the paper, textile and tanning industry as optical brighteners, dispersant, wetting and suspending agents. They can be substrates in the formulation of different products like dyes, pigments, pesticides, exchange resins, plasticizers and pharmaceuticals. Anionic surfactants after use are passed into sewage-treatment plants, where they are partially degraded and adsorbed to sewage sludge (applied in agriculture fields). Finally, the anionic SAA or their degradation products are discharged into surface waters and onto bottom sediments, soils or living organisms. Therefore, it is important (widely application, bioaccumulation, toxicity for living organisms) to investigate the environmental fate of those class of compounds in more details. This research involves determination the concentration of anionic surfactants with use appropriated analytical techniques in environmental samples The official methodology for determination of anionic SAA in liquid samples is based on the ion-pair reaction of these analytes compounds with methylene blue (MB) and an extraction with toxic solvent chloroform. During isolation step of anionic compounds from solid samples are employed Soxhlet and ultrasonic-assisted extraction techniques with use of methanol or mixture of other organic solvents as extraction medium. To overcome disadvantages of those traditional techniques were applied following techniques at sample preparation step from liquid and solid matrices: solid-phase extraction (SPE) and solid-phases microextraction (SPME); accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), respectively. For estimate total concentration of anionic analytes in extracts the spectrophotometric technique is used (as official regulation). For determination concentration of individual analytes were applied gas (derivatization step requires) and liquid chromatography mainly with mass spectrometry technique. The presence of anionic surface active agents was confirmed in various ecosystems (liquid and solid environmental samples).