Dental anxiety can be defined as abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures (Reference.MD, 2018). This clinical condition is a major factor contributing to patients’ refusal for treatment at a dental surgery ( Skaret et al., 1999 , Scheutz & Heidmann, 2001 , Hittner & Hemmo, 2009 ). Dental anxiety is a serious public health problem affecting a very significant proportion of the population ( Smith & Heaton, 2003 , Klinberg & Broberg, 2007 , Astrom et al., 2011
Ahmed Waqas, Aqsa Iftikhar, Zahra Malik, Kapil Kiran Aedma, Hafsa Meraj and Sadiq Naveed
help-seeking skills, thus, concealing their emotional behavioural difficulties ( Walter et al., 2013 ; Ahmed Waqas et al., 2014 ).
Social support is also associated with numerous physical and psychosocial health benefits. It enhances empathy in medical students, which might be an indicator of its stress buffering effects ( Park et al., 2015 ). Poor interpersonal support is associated with increased prevalence of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety, social phobia, sleep problems and several physical health problems (Jeong et al., 2010b; Moak and Agrawal
Katja Koelkebeck, Maja Pantovic Stefanovic, Dorota Frydecka, Claudia Palumbo, Olivier Andlauer, Florian Riese, Nikolina Jovanovic and Mariana Pinto da Costa
their research interest at the beginning of residency, but only toward the end
- bias: participants were researchers in a higher number of cases
- gender imbalance (F: 67.9%)
- only residents have been investigated
- not all programs have been investigated
- data not corrected for multiple comparisons
Torous & Padmanabhan, 2014
Getting experience in research early in training to balance research time as well as clinical work
- lack of (uninterrupted) time
- problems in finding a suitable research question
van Effenterre et
al., 2008 ; Woodford et al., 2012 ; Woodford et al., 2014 ).
Social context theory (Earle & Earle, 1999 ) provides a framework for investigating the way self-concept in sexual minority youth may be affected by identifying and changing current social views of and attitudes toward gay and lesbian young people. Social context is a concept that provides an opportunity to assess perceptionsof social support and acceptance, social behaviors and relationships, problems, decisions and dilemmas, and to establish models to resolve these through the incorporation of
disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety, phobia, prolonged grief and behavioural problems are common (Neria, et al., 2009; Norris & Elrod, 2006 ; Norris, et al., 2002). Among the different types of natural disasters, river bank erosion is less discussed in the social, political or scientific community as it is happening most of the time somewhere in the world.
Bangladesh is a riverine country in the Southeast Asia where natural disasters are a very common phenomenon due to its geo territorial location, land characteristics, multiplicity of rivers and
S M Yasir Arafat, Konstantinos Papadopoulos, Mohammad S I Mullick and Md. Saleh Uddin
chronic (Miller & Smith 1993). Acute and episodic acute stress can be eustress in small doses and are the most common forms of stress ( Hammen et al., 2009 ).
Unlike the first two categories, chronic stress is not exciting but can destroy bodies, minds and lives; can affect people of all ages and genders and can lead not only to physical but also to psychological health problems ( Anderson, 1998 ). Chronic stress can be defined as the response to emotional pressure experienced for a prolonged period of time, when the individuals have the feeling of having little or no
and thus might negatively affect the well-being of the losing side. High-profile suicides in players and managers have recently raised the awareness of the necessity to look at mental health issues in those involved in the professional game (Pringle 2012).
Negative effects of football appear more pronounced when physical health problems from football-related injuries affect the well-being and performance of players, a notable example being the current research into heading the ball and the development of dementia ( Faden and Loane 2015 ). Thus, the physical and
S.M. Yasir Arafat, M A Al Mamun and Md. Saleh Uddin
present with low mood, reduced pleasure in previously enjoyable activities, sleep problems, increase or decrease in appetite and weight, lack of energy, increased fatigability, attention and concentration problem, psychomotor agitation or retardation, undue feeling of guilts, suicidal thoughts, which may lead to suicides ( Kessler & Bromet 2013 ; WHO 2017; American Psychiatric Association 2013 ). Improving the knowledge of the population on depression might help detect depression early.
Health and Depression Literacy
Health literacy (HL) was introduced first in
Faruk Abdullahi Mohammed, Kehinde Kazeem Kanmodi, Omotayo Francis Fagbule, Miracle Ayomikun Adesina, Nwafor Jacob Njideka and Hamza Abubakar Sadiq
Regulation (TobReg) 2015 , WHO 2015, British Heart Foundation, 2019 ). A suggested reason why shisha smoking rate is overtaking that of the cigarette may be because of its stimulatory effect coupled with its higher level of social acceptance when compared to cigarette use ( Maziak et al 2005 , Martinasek et al 2011 , Afifi et al 2013 , Caroll et al, 2014).
There are many reasons why people indulge in shisha smoking habit. Studies had shown that people engage in this habit for pleasure and relaxation and also as a result of peer influence, life problems, distress and
Giuseppe Carrà, Giulia Brambilla, Manuela Caslini, Francesca Parma, Alessandro Chinello, Francesco Bartoli, Cristina Crocamo, Luigi Zappa and Costanza Papagno
( Kuhnpast, Gramann, & Pollatos, 2012 ), but no problems recognising other emotions.
However, an association between impaired FER and executive control has been found in several other serious mental disorders, including alcohol dependence ( Trick et al., 2014 ), schizophrenia ( Bortolon, Capdevielle, & Raffard, 2015 ), and bipolar disorders ( David et al., 2014 ). Prefrontal dysfunction may lead to impairments in executive control and FER ( Adolphs, 2002 ). Emotion face perception is a complex process that cannot be related to a single neural event taking place in a