Dental anxiety can be defined as abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures (Reference.MD, 2018). This clinical condition is a major factor contributing to patients’ refusal for treatment at a dental surgery ( Skaret et al., 1999 , Scheutz & Heidmann, 2001 , Hittner & Hemmo, 2009 ). Dental anxiety is a serious public health problem affecting a very significant proportion of the population ( Smith & Heaton, 2003 , Klinberg & Broberg, 2007 , Astrom et al., 2011
Ahmed Waqas, Aqsa Iftikhar, Zahra Malik, Kapil Kiran Aedma, Hafsa Meraj and Sadiq Naveed
help-seeking skills, thus, concealing their emotional behavioural difficulties ( Walter et al., 2013 ; Ahmed Waqas et al., 2014 ).
Social support is also associated with numerous physical and psychosocial health benefits. It enhances empathy in medical students, which might be an indicator of its stress buffering effects ( Park et al., 2015 ). Poor interpersonal support is associated with increased prevalence of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety, social phobia, sleep problems and several physical health problems (Jeong et al., 2010b; Moak and Agrawal
Katja Koelkebeck, Maja Pantovic Stefanovic, Dorota Frydecka, Claudia Palumbo, Olivier Andlauer, Florian Riese, Nikolina Jovanovic and Mariana Pinto da Costa
their research interest at the beginning of residency, but only toward the end
- bias: participants were researchers in a higher number of cases
- gender imbalance (F: 67.9%)
- only residents have been investigated
- not all programs have been investigated
- data not corrected for multiple comparisons
Torous & Padmanabhan, 2014
Getting experience in research early in training to balance research time as well as clinical work
- lack of (uninterrupted) time
- problems in finding a suitable research question
van Effenterre et
pacjentów wobec choroby. Zdrowie Publiczne. 2008; 118 (3): 259–263.
5. Fortune G, Barrowclough C, Lobban F. Illness representations in depression. Br itish Jour nal Clinical Psycholog y. 2004; 43(4):347–364.
6. Hagger M S, Orbell S. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Common-Sense Model of Illness Representations. Psychology and Health. 2003; 18(2):141–184.
7. Lobban F, Bar rowclough C, Jones S. Assessing cog nitive representations of ment al health problems. I. T he illness perception questionnaire for schizophrenia. British Journal Clinical Psychology. 2005
, 3-4(5-6), pp. 209-220. Saldžiūnas V. & Kovalenko A. (2009a), Problemsof questions in event knowledge test, European Polygraph, 3(2), pp. 69-75.
Saldžiūnas V., Kovalenko A. & Soshnikov A. (2009b), Probability assessment of the value of psyhophysiological stimuli, European Polygraph, 1(7), pp. 25-31.
Saldžiūnas V., Kovalenko A. & Gaidarov K. (2009c), Th e problemsof truth perception during psychophysiological examination, European Polygraph, 3-4(9-10), pp. 145-152.
Saldžiūnas V. & Kovalenka, A. (2010), Field and
(Common Notice of Tactics), European Polygraph, 3-4 (5-6), 209-220.
Saldžiūnas V., Kovalenka A. (2009a). Problemsof Questions in Event Knowledge Test, European Polygraph, 3 (2), 69-75.
Saldžiūnas V., Kovalenka A., Soshnikov A. (2009c). Probability Assessment of the Value of Psychophysiological Stimuli, European Polygraph, 1 (7), 25-31.
Saldžiūnas V., Kovalenko A., Gaidarov K. (2009d). Th e Problemsof Truth Perception During Psychophysiological Examination, European Polygraph, 3-4 (9-10), 145
al., 2008 ; Woodford et al., 2012 ; Woodford et al., 2014 ).
Social context theory (Earle & Earle, 1999 ) provides a framework for investigating the way self-concept in sexual minority youth may be affected by identifying and changing current social views of and attitudes toward gay and lesbian young people. Social context is a concept that provides an opportunity to assess perceptionsof social support and acceptance, social behaviors and relationships, problems, decisions and dilemmas, and to establish models to resolve these through the incorporation of
Police Officers, Prosecutors and Judges’, Psychology, Crime & Law , vol. 9, pp. 19–36.
Taylor, R., Vrij, A. (2001), ‘The Effects of Varying Stake and Cognitive Complexity an Beliefs About the Cues to Deception’, International Journal of Police Science and Management , vol. 3, pp. 111–123.
Ulatowska, J. (2005), ‘Deklarowana wiedza „ekspertów” i „laików: na temat przejawów kłamstwa’, Psychologia Jakości Życia , vol. 4, pp. 165–180.
Ulatowska, J. (2009), ‘Knowledge of Cues to Deception – Looking for its Determinants’, Problemsof Forensic Sciences
disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety, phobia, prolonged grief and behavioural problems are common (Neria, et al., 2009; Norris & Elrod, 2006 ; Norris, et al., 2002). Among the different types of natural disasters, river bank erosion is less discussed in the social, political or scientific community as it is happening most of the time somewhere in the world.
Bangladesh is a riverine country in the Southeast Asia where natural disasters are a very common phenomenon due to its geo territorial location, land characteristics, multiplicity of rivers and
S M Yasir Arafat, Konstantinos Papadopoulos, Mohammad S I Mullick and Md. Saleh Uddin
chronic (Miller & Smith 1993). Acute and episodic acute stress can be eustress in small doses and are the most common forms of stress ( Hammen et al., 2009 ).
Unlike the first two categories, chronic stress is not exciting but can destroy bodies, minds and lives; can affect people of all ages and genders and can lead not only to physical but also to psychological health problems ( Anderson, 1998 ). Chronic stress can be defined as the response to emotional pressure experienced for a prolonged period of time, when the individuals have the feeling of having little or no