Dental anxiety can be defined as abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures (Reference.MD, 2018). This clinical condition is a major factor contributing to patients’ refusal for treatment at a dental surgery ( Skaret et al., 1999 , Scheutz & Heidmann, 2001 , Hittner & Hemmo, 2009 ). Dental anxiety is a serious public health problem affecting a very significant proportion of the population ( Smith & Heaton, 2003 , Klinberg & Broberg, 2007 , Astrom et al., 2011
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Saldžiūnas V., Kovalenko A. & Soshnikov A. (2009b), Probability assessment of the value of psyhophysiological stimuli, European Polygraph, 1(7), pp. 25-31.
Saldžiūnas V., Kovalenko A. & Gaidarov K. (2009c), Th e problemsof truth perception during psychophysiological examination, European Polygraph, 3-4(9-10), pp. 145-152.
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al., 2008 ; Woodford et al., 2012 ; Woodford et al., 2014 ).
Social context theory (Earle & Earle, 1999 ) provides a framework for investigating the way self-concept in sexual minority youth may be affected by identifying and changing current social views of and attitudes toward gay and lesbian young people. Social context is a concept that provides an opportunity to assess perceptionsof social support and acceptance, social behaviors and relationships, problems, decisions and dilemmas, and to establish models to resolve these through the incorporation of
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Ulatowska, J. (2005), ‘Deklarowana wiedza „ekspertów” i „laików: na temat przejawów kłamstwa’, Psychologia Jakości Życia , vol. 4, pp. 165–180.
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disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety, phobia, prolonged grief and behavioural problems are common (Neria, et al., 2009; Norris & Elrod, 2006 ; Norris, et al., 2002). Among the different types of natural disasters, river bank erosion is less discussed in the social, political or scientific community as it is happening most of the time somewhere in the world.
Bangladesh is a riverine country in the Southeast Asia where natural disasters are a very common phenomenon due to its geo territorial location, land characteristics, multiplicity of rivers and
S M Yasir Arafat, Konstantinos Papadopoulos, Mohammad S I Mullick and Md. Saleh Uddin
chronic (Miller & Smith 1993). Acute and episodic acute stress can be eustress in small doses and are the most common forms of stress ( Hammen et al., 2009 ).
Unlike the first two categories, chronic stress is not exciting but can destroy bodies, minds and lives; can affect people of all ages and genders and can lead not only to physical but also to psychological health problems ( Anderson, 1998 ). Chronic stress can be defined as the response to emotional pressure experienced for a prolonged period of time, when the individuals have the feeling of having little or no
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24 Merleau-Ponty M: The primacy ofperception. Northern University Press, 1964.
25 Klosterkötter J, Hellmich M, Steinmeyer EM, Schultze-Lutter F: Diagnosing schizophrenia in the initial prodromal phase. Archives of General Psychiatry 2001;58:158-164.
26 Yung AR, McGorry PD: The initial prodrome in psychosis: Descriptive and qualitative aspects. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 1996
and thus might negatively affect the well-being of the losing side. High-profile suicides in players and managers have recently raised the awareness of the necessity to look at mental health issues in those involved in the professional game (Pringle 2012).
Negative effects of football appear more pronounced when physical health problems from football-related injuries affect the well-being and performance of players, a notable example being the current research into heading the ball and the development of dementia ( Faden and Loane 2015 ). Thus, the physical and