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themselves as protectors of their nation’s ‘Christian identity’ that is allegedly endangered by an ‘invasion of Muslims’ ( Schenkkan 2016 ).
But what is the position of the citizens? The perceptionof Islam and Muslims as an aggressive menace to Western societies gained importance in the aftermath of the Cold War ( Huntington 1997 ) and since the terrorist attacks of 9/11 ( Ruf 2014 ). International surveys show that anti-Muslim resentments are widespread among Western public ( Helbling 2012 ; Pickel and Yendell 2016 ; PEW Research 2018; Strabac and Listhaug 2008
. The only book studying the way in which the Czech political actors deal with the Moslem and migration issues ( Mareš 2015 ) pays attention to the extremist parties on the fringes of the Czech party system only. Apart from this, we have only a brief study on the perceptionof migrants by the Czech local politicians ( Janků and Linhartová 2016 ). There is apparently a gap to be filled.
The main research question we pose is thus the following: how do the politicians use the anti-immigrant and anti-Moslem rhetoric in a country with only a couple of thousands Moslems
that the “We” and “They” categories in social praxis are not only seen in primordialist imagery, they are ascribed also a qualitative and moral dimension on the basis of the asymmetric or directly dualistic principle. In this way, the category “I”/“We” (mine/ours) often merges with the perceptionof the category of (the only) good, correct, nice and normal.
When speaking about Gypsies in Central and Eastern Europe, we cannot omit the historical and contemporary contexts of ethnopolitical praxis, which are different from those in Western Europe. Without explaining
topic. Based on this idea, we are able to interpret several varying methods for dealing with the issue of security (although codes may overlap in many cases). Our approach can thus be called hermeneutic (see Ricoeur 1981 ).
Our effort is to show Miloš Zeman’s perceptionof Islam and immigration in the whole context of (in)security. For this reason, we dealt with the President’s perceptionof security in general. The code tree (see Fig. 1 ) begins with operationalization of the term security (a total of 15 occurrences) and then determination of the sources and
in terms of the value orientations and preferences. We search for words and arguments to understand the reality in the same way. It is sometimes very complicated. Our perceptionof the notions of democracy, freedom (personal freedom, freedom of expression), and their meanings is different, and we have a different idea of what it means to live a good and happy life. It is not uncommon to see among local people their preference for social security as a detriment of their own freedom (“I haven’t been happy since 1989; we must deal with our problems on our own; I don
administrative semicenter, which also related to the perceptionof the dispersion of the nation and its densely populated areas.
Prague was perceived – historically, traditionally, and naturally – as the center of the former Kingdom of Bohemia. The strategy for the future course of action in exerting the authority of the administrative center of the country was most naturally pursued in other parts of the Crown Lands of Bohemia. Although this historically established and organic whole was formally separated in its administration, it was incontestably homogeneous in language
of changes in the political system of the country and the direction of its foreign policy instruments but also on interaction with other regional stakeholders in the economic, security, and the sociocultural sector, i.e., a holistic perceptionof the current state and development. This process of building a multinational regional identity (as discussed in the following sections) is crucial, in our opinion, for maintaining stability in the region and controlling the dynamics of intraregional migration. As provided by Statistics New Zealand based on the 2016 Census
Understanding Multiculturalism from a Different Perspective
Trying to solve the sociocultural dilemma that the Western World encountered when a flow of Muslim immigrants reached its territories, Western governments kept working within a traditional Eurocentric framework. While unprepared to manage cross-cultural problems and often unfamiliar with Islam, policymakers developed a seemingly universal concept called “multiculturalism”. A lot has been written to support or criticize it, including such books as Multiculturalism: Roots and Realities , by James C. Trotman (2002