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perceptionof higher education institutions as being elite and closed. The examples of Tomsk and Novosibirsk indicate the willingness of local universities to act as ideas generators. However, problems complicating the implementation of the Triple Helix model prevent them from playing that role: the stakeholders in local economic activities do not always have the capacity to apply the research capabilities of universities, which is partly a problem inherited from the Soviet era ( Mingaleva, 2012 ). Difficulties in introducing prototypes elaborated at the universities, as
population ageing and/or population shrinkage are long-term processes with severe consequences for municipalities and their population that will become even more acute, and adequate and adapted strategies are required. Research has shown that housing vacancy is one of the most identifiable symptoms of population decrease in cities ( Feldmann, 2008 ; Hoekstra and Vakili-Zad, 2011 ; Saraiva et al., 2017 ), and a serious urban problem for local governments, but this does not always reflect upon planning practices ( Couch and Cocks, 2013 ; Gabriel and Nothaft, 2001
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Agnieszka Szczepańska CDFMR and Katarzyna Pietrzyk CDFPMR
revitalisation is to navigate change in degraded areas by creating new opportunities for social, economic and cultural development. Revitalisation efforts combine technical measures with economic revival programmes as well as solutions addressing vital social problems. These measures restore spatial order, improve the quality of life and rebuild social ties ( Bielawska-Roepke, 2008 ). The effects of revitalisation are felt not only in the targeted area, but throughout the entire city. Revitalisation programmes increase a city’s attractiveness, standard of living, and tourist
Agata Frankowska CDFMR, Izabella Łęcka CDFMR and Jan Frankowski CDFMR
a development project, and this hinders their stability and results in staff turnover. The community’s frustration was compounded by the fact that after the initial years of building the development cooperation in Poland, when the NGO had a great advantage over the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) in terms of know-how, many people from the NGO sector migrated to the MFA, but the efforts to improve NGOs’ capacities remained limited ( Chimiak, 2016 ).
While the problemof capacities of Polish NGOs has been raised in policy circles, the scholarly literature
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Although many actions have been taken by these governments to fight corruption, the problem still exists and remains serious, particularly in Nigeria ( Table 6 ). Nigeria had a very low corruption perception index (CPI), a high corruption score and was low in government efficiency, as compared to China indicators of economic growth ( Table 6 ). Table 6 indicates functions attributed to government components, which thus reflect diverse economic strategies and degrees of intervention, as well as their approaches to successfully fighting corruption. Meanwhile, China is