Linda Dörrzapf, Anna Kovács-Győri, Bernd Resch and Peter Zeile
perceptual qualities and personal reactions in the walking behaviour study (Ewing & Handy 2009). What people perceive is the result of experiences, attitudes and interpretation of the environment. The reactions of pedestrians to a place - such as perceived safety, well-being or interest - are difficult to assess objectively, directly and by external analysts (Ewing & Handy 2009; Talen & Koschinsky 2013 ).
Evaluation of walkability
When considering walkability as a broader concept, it includes quantitative objective characteristics (infrastructure, land use etc.) as
Esraa Jamal, David Scott, Ahmed Idris and Gordon Lovegrove
have been living in Kuwait for 1 to 5 years use buses. After this period, there is a trend towards driving private cars.
Source: Jamal 2015
The analysis suggests significant results in support of the research hypotheses. Only the first hypothesis was not supported. Moreover, perceptions of the daily commute vary by nationality and gender. Non-Kuwaitis have more neutral perceptions of commuting; Kuwaitis perceive commute travel time as either wasted time or valuable time, with, male commuters more stressed than female commuters. The significant
Pascal Krauthausen, Michael Leitner, Alina Ristea and Andrew Curtis
of Post-Traumatic Stress: An Academic Justification for Using a Spatial Video Acquisition System in the Response to Hurricane Katrina Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 15(4), 208–219. 10.1111/j.1468-5973.2007.00522.x Curtis A. Mills J. W. Kennedy B. Fotheringham S. McCarthy T. 2007 Understanding the Geography of Post-Traumatic Stress: An Academic Justification for Using a Spatial Video Acquisition System in the Response to Hurricane Katrina Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 15 4 208 219
Grün, A. (2016
, and I believe it should not be considered negligible since ‘multisensory experience of any physical and material environment is inseparable from the cultural knowledge and everyday practices through which the city is built and experienced’ ( Pink 2008 : 96).
Finally, the core results of the mapping process will not be deliberated here, since the layered structure of the collected data goes beyond the scope of this paper. It is, however, important to stress that the photos created during the process of mapping have been used as visual material for photo elicitation
them. They are not always perceived, however, as an integral component of regeneration programmes and projects.
Long-awaited regulations on urban policy have appeared in recent years. In October 2015, the National Urban Policy 2023 ( Krajowa Polityka Miejska 2023 [KPM]) document was approved by the Council of Ministers. In the same month and the same year, the Polish Parliament approved the Regeneration Act (Ustawa o Rewitalizacji [UoR]). On the other hand, issues concerning climate have been included in the document approved by the Council of Ministers in
’ ( Smagacz-Poziemska 2015 ), the author decided to determine how the ‘new’ centre is perceived by its users and what patterns of usage they established during its first two years of operation.
The study lasted from March to June 2017 and took the form of standardised interviews with a sample of 220 users of the centre of Katowice who study, work, and spend their leisure time in these spaces. The sample was selected on a targeted and convenience basis, depending on the accessibility of respondents, with half of the sample consisting of women and half of men, and with
heritage management ( Shackely 1998 , 2001 ).
The examples presented in this article intend to shed light on the role social practice plays in the ‘life’ of a monument. My major interest is to find possible reasons or explanations why a monument becomes unsuccessful or rejected? In the following, I stress the importance of social practice as a crucial element in the fate of a monument. I argue that public acceptance of a memorial largely hinges on whether it is capable of addressing and engaging with its visitors. This factor is dependent not only on the aesthetics of
positively correlated with some aspects of the sense of community, for example, sense of security ( Talen 1999 : 1365; Vick & Perkins 2013 ).
The social doctrine of New Urbanism might be summarised as follows: ‘Its promoters stress the conviction that the built environment can create a “sense of community”, grounded in the idea that private communication networks are simply no substitute for real neighbourhoods, and that a reformulated philosophy about how we build communities will overcome our current civic deficits, build social capital and revive a community spirit
remarkable consensus about the usefulness of flagships among public and private actors involved in the process of urban regeneration. Flagship projects are perceived as visible symbols of urban renewal, powerful place-marketing tools and catalysts of regeneration ( Bianchini et al., 1992 ). There was a widely accepted view that ‘a city without a flagship did not have a regeneration strategy’ ( O’Toole & Usher 1992 : 221). The supporters of flagship projects, and in particular the so-called ‘prestigious flagship projects’ P. Loftman and B. Nevin (1995 : 300) define a
Andrzej Bukowski, Marcjanna Nóżka and Marta Smagacz-Poziemska
(...) I’d really like to stress that if the police come, if they could not give a fine, because it’s a midwife, because I’m having a baby right now.’ And when my husband wakes up, he’ll sort out [a “legal” parking space] (KN.04)
This incident is an example of the embodiment and routinisation of normative rules reflected in social practices. On the other hand, though, the increasingly petty and restrictive ways of organising parking areas and regulating access to them are increasingly met with disapproval from residents, especially when they are perceived as