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S M Yasir Arafat, Konstantinos Papadopoulos, Mohammad S I Mullick and Md. Saleh Uddin

abuser, or HIV infected ( Chandler et al., 2015 ). However, some people have these characteristics and are responsible for adverse childhood experiences, which may raise the perceived stress and initiate or precipitate risky health behaviours for some children ( Chandler et al., 2015 ). Growing evidence revealed both short- and long-term adversities to health and well-being due to adverse life experiences in childhood, particularly when adversities are enduring, cumulative, or occurring during sensitive periods in early developing phase ( Masten & Barnes, 2018

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Fatima Hossain and Nuno Ferreira

-Fa, Perceived Social Support—Family ( Procidano & Heller, 1983 ); PSS-Fr, Perceived Social Support—Friends ( Procidano & Heller, 1983 ); SCS, Social Connectedness Scale ( Lee & Robbins, 1995 ); MOGS, Measure Of Gay-related Stressors ( Lewis, 2001 ); CES-DS, Center for Epidemiology Studies—Depression Scale ( Radloff, 1977 ); RCSS, Religious Comfort and Strain Scale (Yali & Exline, 2004, as cited in Dahl & Galliher, 2010); BMMRS, Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiosity/Spirituality ( Fetzer Institute, 1999 ); SNS, Support Network Survey ( Berger, 1992 ); NRI, Network of

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Illaria Tercelli and Nuno Ferreira

.M., Suwalsky, J.T.D., Collins, W.A. (2008). Parenting stress, perceived parenting behaviors, and adolescent self-concept in European American families. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 752-762. 10.1037/a0013177 Putnick D.L. Bornstein M.H. Hendricks C. Painter K.M. Suwalsky J.T.D. Collins W.A. 2008 Parenting stress, perceived parenting behaviors, and adolescent self-concept in European American families Journal of Family Psychology 22 752 762 Roman, M.W. (2010). Treatments for childhood ADHD part II: Non-pharmacological and novel

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Faruk Abdullahi Mohammed, Kehinde Kazeem Kanmodi, Omotayo Francis Fagbule, Miracle Ayomikun Adesina, Nwafor Jacob Njideka and Hamza Abubakar Sadiq

.3) 37 (82.2) 2 (4.4) To relieve stress 10 (22.2) 33 (73.3) 2 (4.4) Other reasons, such as Because of peer pressure 3 (6.7) 0 (0.0) 42 (93.3) For pleasure 18 (40.0) 0 (0.0) 27 (60.0) The majority (32/45) of the participants wanted to quit shisha smoking habit. Amongst those participants who wanted to quit shisha smoking habit, only 18 of them indicated that they made efforts at quitting the behaviour within the past 1 year ( Table 2 ). Only 66.7% (28/42) and 65.6% (21/32) of those participants who had a close friend

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Reinhard Heun

continuous increase in irritability during the month anxiety and irritability were increased during Ramadan the effect is stronger in smokers self-selection of volunteers selection bias Koushali, Hajiamini, Ebadi, Bayat, Khamseh 2013 Iran Effect of Ramadan on emotional reactions of nurses pre-post follow up 313 nurses 137 females 37.8 years Depression, Anxiety and Strees Scales (DASS) reduction of DASS scores in nurses depression and stress levels were significantly reduced after in comparison with before the holy month Fasting

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Reinhard Heun and Alan Pringle

negative life-stress and daily hassle were predictors of injuries amongst professional soccer players (Ivarsson and Johnson. 2010, Ivarson et al. 2013 ). It was not just the presence of anxiety but the ineffective coping mechanisms to deal with everyday anxiety that were found by predictors of injuries in young players in Johnson and Ivarsson’s study (2011), whilst athletes who perceived their anxiety to be debilitative showed higher levels of burnout ( Wiggins et al. 2005 ). Laux et al. (2015) suggested early signs of this process could be found by monitoring stress