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Vilawan Chirdkiatgumchai, Nichara Ruangdaraganon, Rawiwan Roongpraiwan, Tasnawat Sombuntham, Pat Rojmahamongkol and Rungtip Prasertchai


Background: More than 90% of cases of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are idiopathic and are multi-factorial inheritant in etiology. Although parental perceptions of ASDs etiologies including genetics have been investigated well in western countries, there is no study regarding Asian parental perspectives on the genetic etiology of ASDs. Objectives: Examine what Thai parents perceived to be the etiology of ASDs with particular focus on the role of genetics, and analyze the correlation between demographics of parents and the perception of genetics as an etiology of ASDs. Methods: Children diagnosed with an ASD at Ramathibodi Hospital were recruited, and 328 questionnaires were mailed to their parents between February 1 and March 31, 2008. Based on 252 answers received, the perception of genetics as an etiology of ASDs was evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Among 252 parents, 44.0% cited genetics, 52% cited other prenatal and perinatal factors such as stress and chemical exposure during pregnancy, 33% cited postnatal factors such as child rearing, child’s viewing of television, and playing computer game as etiologies of ASDs. Parents’ education, positive family history of ASDs, and positive family history of speech delay were all significantly associated with the perception of genetics as an etiology of ASDs. Conclusions: Less than half of Thai parents cited genetics as an etiology of ASDs. This finding alerts medical professionals to spend more time and effort to educate and counsel parents.

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S. Roslan, N. Ahmad, N. Nabilla and Z. Ghiami

. Ryff, C.D. Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1989, 57(6): 1069-81. 6. Yang, Y.-T.T. Stress, coping, and psychological well-being: Comparison among American and Asian international graduate students from Taiwan, China, and South Korea, 2010. 7. Lovitts, B.E. Being a good course taker is not enough: A theoretical perspective on the transition to independent research. Studies in Higher Education, 2005, 30(2): 137-154. 8. Abiddin, N.Z. and A. Ismail

Open access

Umaporn Trangkasombat and Nicharpat Rujiradarporn

replication, Am J Psychiatry. 2002; 159:1051-2. 25. Wilhelm K, Roy K, Mitchell P, Brownhill S, Parker G. Gender differences in depression risk and coping factors in a clinical sample. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2002; 106:45-53. 26. Kovacs M. Gender and the course of major depressive disorder through adolescence in clinically referred youngsters. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psych. 2001; 40:1079-85. 27. Leadbeater BJ, Blatt SJ, Quinlan DM. Gender-linked vulnerabilities to depressive symptoms, stress, and problem behaviors in adolescents

Open access

Kate Khair and Sylvia Von Mackensen

Westesson L, Sparud-Lundin C, Wallengren C, Baghaei F. A tortuous route to a capable fatherhood: the experience of being a father to a child with severe haemophilia. Haemophilia. 2015; 21(6): 799-805. 8. Myrin-Westesson L, Baghaei F, Friberg F. The experience of being a female carrier of haemophilia and the mother of a haemophilic child. Haemophilia. 2013; 19(2): 219-24. 9. Torres-Ortuno A, Cuesta-Barriuso R, Nieto-Munuera J. Parents of children with haemophilia at an early age: assessment of perceived stress and family functioning

Open access

Kate Khair and Steve Chaplin

: assessment of perceived stress and family functioning. Haemophilia 2014;20:756-62. 22. Bottos AM, Zanon E, Sartori MT, et al. Psychological aspects and coping styles of parents with haemophilic child undergoing a programme of counselling and psychological support. Haemophilia 2007;13:305-10. 23. Kang HS, Kim WO, Cho KJ, et al. Development, implementation and evaluation of a new self-help programme for mothers of haemophilic children in Korea: a pilot study. Haemophilia 2010;16:130-5. 24. Cuesta-Barriuso R, Torres-Ortuño A

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Aem-orn Saengsiri, Sureeporn Thanasilp and Sunida Preechawong

. 7. Saengsiri A, Wunsuwan R, Srimahachota S, Boonyaratavej S, Tanechpongtamb W, Tosukhowong P. Change in cell viability, reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress in older patients with coronary heart disease under going lifestyle management program. Chula Med J. 2010; 54:81-97. 8. Hofer S, Benzer W, Alber H, Ruttmann E, Kopp M, Schussler G, et al. Determinants of health-related quality of life in coronary artery disease patients: a prospective study generating a structural equation model. Psychosomatics. 2005; 46

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Ramin Tavakoli, Hamid Yaghooti, Robab Daghagheleh, Rohollah Yousofi and Parisa Rahimifar

Castelli’s risk index type I (CRI-I), Castelli’s risk index type II (CRI-II), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) are appropriate markers for evaluating the risk of cardiovascular disease [ 9 ]. Collegiate life is a stressful period because of the presence of multiple stressors. A high prevalence of depression among university students of up to 37% has been reported [ 10 ]. It is important to diagnose the disorder early and manage and treat the suffering students. Treatment can avoid serious outcomes of this condition such as suicide. In the present study, we

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Kanisshanone Chuayruang, Jiruth Sriratanaban, Narin Hiransuthikul and Sompongse Suwanwalaikorn

1.00 Sym7 Have infected symptom in the body 1.00 Psychological Relating to psychological Psychol Feel depression and anxiety 1.00 ✓ [ 7 , 10 , ✓ ✓ Well-being well-being especially Psycho2 Can find a way to relieve stress 1.00 21 - 24 , 28 (Psycho) disease-related e.g., Psycho3 Positive well-being and adjustment 1.00 33 - 40 ] anxiety, depression, coping, Psycho4 Can live with life satisfaction 1.00 positive well-being and adjustment, life satisfaction

Open access

Małgorzata Grabara


The objectives of this review paper are (I) the analysis based on previous studies of whether hatha yoga exercises fulfil the recommendation for the level of physical activity recommended by the WHO and ACSM; (II) the recommendation for how to arrange weekly hatha yoga practice, which can be considered a health-related physical activity; and (III) the analysis of the benefits of a regular hatha yoga workout in view of scientific studies, in particular regard to the prevention of diseases of civilization and improvement in health-related physical fitness.

Based on previous studies, only dynamic Sun Salutations of yoga exercises (Suryanamaskar) are moderate-intensity physical activity, and therefore must be performed at least 5 days a week in 30 min duration or 150 min per week meet the recommendation. Hatha yoga meets the recommendations regarding types of exercise, because it includes poses improving muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and balance. Dynamic sequences of Sun Salutation can be regarded as aerobic exercises. Regular hatha yoga training may be an intervention for the primary and secondary prevention of diseases of civilization. Yoga exercises were found to produce reductions in diastolic blood pressure; to improve cardiorespiratory system and metabolic parameters; to correct posture; to reduce back pain; to prevent obesity; to lower blood glucose level; to be beneficial for stress and depression; to relieve perceived pain; and to improve functional fitness and perceived quality of life. Hatha yoga also improves physical fitness, especially in regards to health-related fitness.

In the context of the recommendation and reported benefits, hatha yoga is the health-related physical activity.

Open access

Nada Pop-Jordanova, Olivera Sarakinova and Sofija Loleska

REFERENCES 1. Blass EM, Ciaramitaro V. (1994) Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59 (1, Serial No. 239). 2. Boyce, W. T., Barr, R. G., & Zeltzer, L. K. (1992). Temperament and the psychobiology of stress. Pediatrics; 90: 483–486. 3. Clarke, G. N., Hawkins, W., Murphy, M., Sheeber, L. B., Lewinsohn, P. M., & Seeley, J. R. (1995). Targeted prevention of unipolar depressive disorder in an at-risk sample of high school adolescents: A randomized trial of a group cognitive intervention. Journal of the American Academy of