Since the mid-19th century until the 1930s, the Czech physical education and the scout movements formed a platform for the propagation of a specific somatology and health science discourse connected with the issues of morality, national awareness and political views. They strived to create an integral Czech personality subject to the imperative of the bourgeois values and norms. The stress was on the set of rules, diligence, commitment to the benefit of the nation, moderation, temperance, and obedience, while laziness and conspicuous revelry were, in this context, condemned. Disobedience, immorality and improper use of powers were perceived as a real threat to the national community and later to the so-called First Czechoslovak Republic (1918-1938). Hence, activities of both the physical education organisations and the Scout Movement, became a form of national defence against harmful influences. As a result of their effort to impact the society as a whole, these activities became a mobilization tool which promoted both physical and moral norms: the cultivation of the body became a moral duty for all members of the nation. The disapproval, based on political and generational reasons, towards the bourgeois morality hegemony and later, of the state paternalism (for instance by the non-organised scout-tramps), resulted in attempts to condemn all those who refused the social dictate and the state’s control.
. 113–138, at pp. 113–121. Koerber, as John Deak put it, »used administrative reform in place of constitutional or political reform«, Deak: State, p. 235. and trust (or the lack thereof) served to describe the problem, i.e. the monarchy’s (perceived or real) lack of legitimacy among the populace, and the way to its solution. The monarchy’s administration, Koerber remarked in his »Studien über eine Verwaltungsreform«, had the flaw that those »institutions of social welfare, the benefits of which are felt immediately by the population and which the populace
Frits van der Meer, Gerrit Dijkstra and Toon Kerkhoff
what is perceived as proper personnel policies. In order to guarantee these merit principles of the best and most fitting, employment decisions have been governed by uniform and impersonal policies and procedures. From this definition it becomes clear that what is fitting and what is best can differ substantially. Here we arrive at the complexities mentioned earlier. The content of merit can vary according to the requirements of (government) organizations in view of their specific tasks, intervention approach and instruments (see figure 1 ). Even more significantly
A Long Normative History of a Statistical Category in the U.K
practice, an open definition – as already in use in other countries in the second half of the 20 th century – included self-descriptions or self-assessments of historical actors and changes in society as perceived by members of the society rather than through social scientists’ categories. While feminists and other historical actors in different states already criticised the normative bias of the definition in the 1960s and 1970s, a different question seems to be of equal or even greater importance to the historian: How, when and why did different nations and