The state border is a barrier that most people perceive and use to construct their identity vis-à-vis the neighbouring country ( van Houtum 1999 ). However, boundaries and their depiction on maps can bear multiple forms: most of the time, we provide other administrative–political boundaries where states are divided into smaller units, such as regions, provinces, counties or districts. Some of these borders have survived since their creation to the present, others serve as memory (see Jańczak’s concept of the phantom border, 2014). In our article
recognise the possibility of introducing the IBSE strategy in classes. Such observation is a specific way of perceiving, gathering and interpreting data in the natural course of events. The data are usually within sight or hearing distance of the observer ( Łobocki 2000 ). This method is characteristic for not only sciences (including geography) but also for educational studies and it is connected with purposeful, planned and systematic perception of a studied subject, process or phenomenon ( Sztumski 1999 ). An additional advantage of the observations conducted was the
processes of regional development and spatial organization or management in Latin America focuses in on work dealing with the territory of single countries. There are thus few more-modern analyses dealing with South America as a whole continent, or the Central American region. However, Latin American subject matter does appear in the monographs and reports prepared more recently by CEPAL (2016), albeit with the main focus being on sustainable development and the consequences of climate change for economic processes. Thus, the appearance of the need (as perceived by the
The development of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has significant economic and social impacts at both the global and regional level. Some of these implications have been perceived as positive and unexpected. While both the positive and negative social and economic impacts have been highlighted in the literature, opinions on these impacts remain ambiguous. Those aspects considered to be advantageous include faster communication, ease of use, development in the range of services and revenues, and an increase in individuals’ free time allowance. ICT penetrates all branches of the economy as a set of general purpose technologies. New information and communication technologies ease everyday life, serve as tools to help people in extreme situations, e.g. accidents, illnesses or natural disasters, and are also the pillars of contemporary entertainment media. The usefulness of ICT has been stressed and loudly disseminated to a large extent by the media. On the other hand, these new technologies sensitize society in quite new ways to the well-known natural hazards that people have encountered in the past.
Krzysztof Błażejczyk, Jarosław Baranowski and Anna Błażejczyk
Jendritzky, G, Staiger, H, Bucher, K, Graetz, A & Laschewski, G 2011, ‘The perceived temperature. The method of the Deutscher Wetterdienst for the assessment of cold stress and heat load for the human body’, Deutscher Wetterdienst. Available from: <http://www.utci.org/isb/documents/perceived_temperature.pdf> [5 Oct. 2013].
Kampmann, B, Bröde, P & Fiala, D 2012, ‘Physiological responses to temperature and humidity compared to the assessment by UTCI, WGBT and PHS’, Int J Biometeorol, vol. 56, pp. 505-513.
Kunert, A 2010, ‘Modeling of UTCI
Marta Lackowska, Barbara Nowicka, Marta Bałandin and Mirosław Grochowski
Axelrod, LJ & Lehman, DR 1993, ’Responding to environmental concerns: What factors guide individual action?’, Journal of Environmental Psychology , no. 13, pp. 149–159.
Biesbrӧek, RG, Swart, RJ & van der Knaap, WGM 2009, ’The mitigation-adaptation dichotomy and the role of spatial planning’, Habitat International, no. 33 pp. 230–237.
Brower, SK, Dockett, & Taylor, RB 1983, ‘Residents perceptions of territorial features and perceived local threat’, Environment and Behavior , vol. 15 no. 4, pp. 419-437. DOI: 10
Due to the progress of succession processes and the diverse vegetation cover of derelict areas, the character of the landscape also changes. These are often perceived by urban residents as natural areas, while also being seen as attractive in contrast to developed land ( Thompson 2002 ; Höchtl et al. 2005 ; Ruskule et al. 2013 ; Bonthoux et al. 2014 ). This is determined by the potential contact with both nature and open space. According to the prospect–refuge theory, based on the analysis of human biological and aesthetic needs, areas where viewers, while being
Arnold Bernaciak, Agnieszka Rzeńca and Agnieszka Sobol
all, addressed to a wider public, social ( Szmidt 1981 ). The Spatial Planning and Management Act ( Dziennik Ustaw [Journal of Laws] 2017 , art. 2, item 1073, as amended) describes public space as a particularly relevant area which meets residents’ needs, improves the quality of life and encourages social interactions because of its location, as well as the functional and spatial attributes specified in the feasibility study for development options in municipalities. Bierwaczonek, Lewicka and Nawrocki (2012) stress that the notion of public space remains ambiguous
are determinants of travel behaviour. Often, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) ( Ajzen 1991 ), which assumes that behaviour is determined by intentions, is used as the theoretical foundation. Ajzen sees this under the premise of actual behaviour control, implying that a person must be able to translate his/her intention into behaviour in the first place. An intention is composed of the attitude towards a certain behaviour, the subjective norm and the perceived control of behaviour. Attitude describes the personal evaluation of behaviour. The subjective norm
position of these macro-regions in the world. The problems of immigration from developing countries should also be stressed. When it comes to this topic, Europe in particular is unable to create an active defence against the influx of migrants from the Middle East and Africa. At present, Africa has over one billion inhabitants, but forecasts from this century speak of at least a doubling of the African population. This will undoubtedly translate into pressure, especially on Europe. Will it still be the macroregion described here in twenty years’ time?