context of increasing spatial and social polarization in many European countries, it is a highly relevant chapter. The authors stress that in Germany there are numerous rural regions, and even peripheral areas, which are displaying positive and sustainable development. The most interesting part of this study is, however, the “discovery” of factors that have made such regions able to compete with other growth areas. Behind this is the creation of informal networks, bringing together business, politics, and public administration: something which might be described as an
The current public, political and academic interest in concepts of vulnerability and resilience can at least partly be seen in the light of the financial and economic crisis of the late 2000s and continuing forms of perceived social, political, economic and financial crises in a number of European countries. The author thanks three anonymous reviewers for useful comments that helped improve an earlier version of this paper. This has brought a new dimension to these concepts which have their roots in socio-ecological research. The contribution
Perceiving and dealing with endangerments form part of the history of human society. People have always tried to protect themselves from the dangers they perceive. In relation to dealing with dangers, however, it is possible to identify spatial, social and temporal differences. Thus, for instance, neighbouring coastal regions can differ from one another in the way in which they deal with the threat of storm flooding at a particular time, even though they are exposed to very similar physical environments. In addition, in the same coastal region
are determinants of travel behaviour. Often, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) ( Ajzen 1991 ), which assumes that behaviour is determined by intentions, is used as the theoretical foundation. Ajzen sees this under the premise of actual behaviour control, implying that a person must be able to translate his/her intention into behaviour in the first place. An intention is composed of the attitude towards a certain behaviour, the subjective norm and the perceived control of behaviour. Attitude describes the personal evaluation of behaviour. The subjective norm
disturbances ( Scheffer 2009 ). From the evolutionary perspective resilience is perceived as the ability of complex socio-ecological systems to change, adapt and transform in response to stresses and strains ( Davoudi 2013 : 302). The evolutionary resilience concept is well in tune with the post-modern paradigm. Change and mobility, attributes of this approach, are immanent features of today’s world. The networks of relations and interdependencies, the spaces of flow and the growing levels of complexity require interpretative models open and flexible enough to encompass the
has been written in recent times on polycentricity, territoriality and urban governance, particularly in the mainland European context (see for example Hall/Pain 2006 ). In this accumulated body of published essays it would have been valuable to read how these detailed findings on the positionality of German cities in advanced producer services and high technology—two vital sectors of the knowledge economy—can assist or detract from driving the national economy and in providing solutions to the perceived spatiality of the West vs. East ‘divide’ in Germany. These
. Therefore the national policy approach changed into a more balanced “equity plus efficiency” approach, paying more attention to deliver the right conditions for economic progress. Before discussing the grotestedenbeleid we will briefly summarise some other aspects of national policy that affected the functioning of the cities.
Since the 1980’s national spatial policy stressed the need for economic growth and the role of the market sector. This emphasis on economic growth and international competition has very explicitly put the larger cities in the
auditors often contribute their own experiences and considerations. As a consequence, an important amount of my empirical data originates from my personal circles and from informal sources. I have strived to balance this bias by the formal and distanced methods described above. For a detailed description of my approach, see Frank (2017) .
2 What is a Suburb?
Interpreting the spread of inner-city family enclaves as a process of inner-city suburbanization might come as a provocation to many. Planners, in particular, often tend to perceive suburban estates as
( Burdack/Hesse 2007 ; Young/Keil 2010 ; Phelps/Wood 2011 ; Mace 2013 ; Charmes/Keil 2015 ). This work has illustrated that the suburban paradigm is not only out-dated, but is an altogether ill-suited metaphorical concept for urban growth. Here, the work of Phelps, Wood and Valler (2010) should be stressed as well. They are clear that ‘post-suburban’ is not, in itself, another essentialist category; rather it is a lens that offers new dimensions to understand and compare new urban spaces.
Although much of this literature has focused on North American and British
/Timperio/Crawford 2013 ).
3.5 Das Verkehrssystem
Eine große Anzahl von Faktoren des Verkehrssystems, mit im Einzelfall sehr kleinteilig-detaillierten Umständen, können Eltern davon abhalten, ihren Kindern die selbstständige Mobilität zu erlauben. Hierzu zählen hohe Kfz-Verkehrsdichte, hohe Geschwindigkeitsniveaus, breite, zu überquerende Straßen, Unfallschwerpunkte auf der Strecke und – genereller – vom Kfz-Verkehr verursachter Stress (Stone/Larsen/Faulkner et al. 2014; Ahern/Arnott/Chatterton et al. 2017 ; Zhang/Yao/Liu 2017; Scheiner/Huber/Lohmüller 2019). Umgekehrt wird das