are determinants of travel behaviour. Often, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) ( Ajzen 1991 ), which assumes that behaviour is determined by intentions, is used as the theoretical foundation. Ajzen sees this under the premise of actual behaviour control, implying that a person must be able to translate his/her intention into behaviour in the first place. An intention is composed of the attitude towards a certain behaviour, the subjective norm and the perceived control of behaviour. Attitude describes the personal evaluation of behaviour. The subjective norm
/Timperio/Crawford 2013 ).
3.5 Das Verkehrssystem
Eine große Anzahl von Faktoren des Verkehrssystems, mit im Einzelfall sehr kleinteilig-detaillierten Umständen, können Eltern davon abhalten, ihren Kindern die selbstständige Mobilität zu erlauben. Hierzu zählen hohe Kfz-Verkehrsdichte, hohe Geschwindigkeitsniveaus, breite, zu überquerende Straßen, Unfallschwerpunkte auf der Strecke und – genereller – vom Kfz-Verkehr verursachter Stress (Stone/Larsen/Faulkner et al. 2014; Ahern/Arnott/Chatterton et al. 2017 ; Zhang/Yao/Liu 2017; Scheiner/Huber/Lohmüller 2019). Umgekehrt wird das
of Leitbilder , as well as of the difficulties of finding an equivalent English term for the concept. At the end, Horst Zimmermann expresses his scepticism regarding the usefulness of the term ‘ Leitbild ’.
In the second study, Gabi Troeger-Weiß, Hans-Jörg Domhardt and Christoph Scheck present an empirical analysis of engines of growth beyond metropolitan areas. In the context of increasing spatial and social polarization in many European countries, it is a highly relevant chapter. The authors stress that in Germany there are numerous rural regions, and even
The current public, political and academic interest in concepts of vulnerability and resilience can at least partly be seen in the light of the financial and economic crisis of the late 2000s and continuing forms of perceived social, political, economic and financial crises in a number of European countries. The author thanks three anonymous reviewers for useful comments that helped improve an earlier version of this paper. This has brought a new dimension to these concepts which have their roots in socio-ecological research. The contribution
Perceiving and dealing with endangerments form part of the history of human society. People have always tried to protect themselves from the dangers they perceive. In relation to dealing with dangers, however, it is possible to identify spatial, social and temporal differences. Thus, for instance, neighbouring coastal regions can differ from one another in the way in which they deal with the threat of storm flooding at a particular time, even though they are exposed to very similar physical environments. In addition, in the same coastal region
disturbances ( Scheffer 2009 ). From the evolutionary perspective resilience is perceived as the ability of complex socio-ecological systems to change, adapt and transform in response to stresses and strains ( Davoudi 2013 : 302). The evolutionary resilience concept is well in tune with the post-modern paradigm. Change and mobility, attributes of this approach, are immanent features of today's world. The networks of relations and interdependencies, the spaces of flow and the growing levels of complexity require interpretative models open and flexible enough to encompass the
has been written in recent times on polycentricity, territoriality and urban governance, particularly in the mainland European context (see for example Hall/Pain 2006 ). In this accumulated body of published essays it would have been valuable to read how these detailed findings on the positionality of German cities in advanced producer services and high technology—two vital sectors of the knowledge economy—can assist or detract from driving the national economy and in providing solutions to the perceived spatiality of the West vs. East ‘divide’ in Germany. These
extension of the 1994 State Spatial Planning Programme LROP, completed in 2006 (MELELV 2006). In this context, a flexible interpretation of the extent of the coastal zone was introduced, depending on the issue in question. In parallel, a spatial planning concept for the coastal waters (ROKK – Raumordnungskonzept Küstenmeer) was prepared with the intention of providing the 'conceptual foundation' for the LROP extension and Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Lower Saxony more broadly ( MLRELV 2005 ). Integrated Coastal Zone Management was perceived as part of a shift
Three dimensions of creativity-enhancing support through physical places
Psychosocial support (increase well-being, decrease stress and social barriers)
Functional support (increase job performance, decrease distraction)
Inspirational support (increase creativity and quality)
Ergonomic tools and furniture
Inspiring places – architectural planning
Inspiring places – interior design
Stress management spaces
. Therefore the national policy approach changed into a more balanced “equity plus efficiency” approach, paying more attention to deliver the right conditions for economic progress. Before discussing the grotestedenbeleid we will briefly summarise some other aspects of national policy that affected the functioning of the cities.
Since the 1980’s national spatial policy stressed the need for economic growth and the role of the market sector. This emphasis on economic growth and international competition has very explicitly put the larger cities in the