Researchers have investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and psychological wellbeing in a number of ways and from different disciplinary perspectives, examining various associations with other variables. The researchers within the field of sport and exercise psychology have focused on potential mediating variables which can account for this relationship, for instance, perceived social support ( Roohafza et al., 2016 ; Smith et al., 1995 ) and perceivedstress ( Laborde et al., 2016 ; Raedeke and Smith, 2004 ; Roohafza
Filipe Manuel Clemente, Bruno Mendes, Sarah da Glória Teles Bredt, Gibson Moreira Praça, André Silvério, Sandro Carriço and Emanuel Duarte
2.49 a,d [2.42;2.56]
1.79 b [1.75;1.84]
1.70 a,f [1.66;1.73]
1.79 b [1.74;1.84]
2.67 b,e,f [2.61;2.74]
2.50 a,f [2.44;2.55]
2.49 f [2.41;2.58]
2.49 a,f [2.41;2.56]
2.28 a,b,c,e [2.22;2.34]
Legend: Significant different from M-4 a ; M-3 b ; M-2 c ; M-1 d ; M-0 e ; M f
This study aimed to compare the perceived training load (internal load) and wellness status between training sessions and matches in
O. Ueberschär, D. Fleckenstein, F. Warschun, N. Walter, J. C. Wüstenfeld, B. Wolfarth and M. W. Hoppe
athletes. Sports Med, 37 (7), 575-586. doi:10.2165/00007256-200737070-00002
Borg, G. (1970). Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress. Scand J Rehabil Med, 2 (2), 92-98.
Cohen, J. (1973). Eta-Squared and Partial Eta-Squared in Fixed Factor Anova Designs. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 33 (1), 107-112. doi:10.1177/001316447303300111
di Prampero, P. E. (1981). Energetics of muscular exercise. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol, 89 , 143-222.
Donelan, J. M., & Kram, R. (2000). Exploring dynamic similarity in human running using
and sports experiences. The way they perceive themselves and others together with their beliefs, will also become the basis of their social interactions and their general health. Negative and maladaptive beliefs may lead to depression disorders. These occur due to a misinterpretation of events and negative representations of oneself, the world and the future (called the cognitive triad) ( Knapp and Beck, 2008 ). The way of perceiving oneself and the surrounding world plays an important role in coping with stress, including the stress related to sports competition
Mário J. Costa, Lúcia Cruz, Ana Simão and Tiago M. Barbosa
exercise. There are several equipment commercially available to elicit more exertion. Despite having buoyancy features, equipment like dumbbells or leggings is mostly used as “resistance (or drag) devices” for strength and conditioning purposes. Literature shows little evidence on the acute adaptations when using dumbbells, whereas information on leggings is nonexistent. Costa et al. (2008) noted that performing the “rocking horse” exercise with dumbbells increased the rating of perceived exertion, heart rate and blood lactate concentrations when compared to the same
transcribe their perceived levels of muscular soreness whilst executing the squats. Each participant then completed a 5-min warm-up on a cycle ergometer at 60 W (60 r·min -1 ) (Ergomedic 874E, Monark, Sweden), followed by three individual countermovement jumps (CMJ) and seated medicine-ball throws (MBT). Following this participants carried out a further 5-min warm-up on the cycle ergometer prior to isokinetic assessment. Isokinetic assessment included completing five maximal-effort knee flexion and extension actions at 60°/s using the dominant-leg after two warm-up sets
Alireza Rabbani, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Mehdi Kargarfard and Saeid Jahangiri
separated from vigorous training sessions by at least 72 hours. The wellness status of all players was monitored using self‐reported measures (i.e., sleep, stress, fatigue, and soreness) to ensure the freshness of players before they performed the tests.
The training period lasted four weeks during the summer. For both groups, training took place between 3:00 and 5:00 p.m. with a temperature range of 24 to 30ºC. Aside from the order in which SSGs and HIT were implemented, both groups underwent similar technical/tactical and conditioning sessions. All
Pedro Reche-Soto, Donaldo Cardona-Nieto, Arturo Diaz-Suarez, Alejandro Bastida-Castillo, Carlos Gomez-Carmona, Javier Garcia-Rubio and Jose Pino-Ortega
important aspects for fitness coaches to consider ( Eirale et al., 2013 ). Correct planning and monitoring of training demands is crucial to optimize performance of top‐level players (Gómez‐Díaz et al., 2013). The internal training load is the physical response to stress factors. Heart rate telemetry, oxygen consumption, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) or blood lactate are commonly used methods for assessing internal loads ( Borresen and Lambert, 2009 ). The external training load is the objective measurement of the work performed by the players, and is classified in
Petros G. Botonis, Argyris G. Toubekis and Theodoros I. Platanou
assess general indicators of players’ wellness. The questionnaire was comprised of five questions related to perceived fatigue, sleep quality, general muscle soreness, stress levels and mood with each question scored on a five-point scale (McLeanet al., 2010). The questionnaire was completed daily upon awakening and concerned the preceding daily training load. The overall wellness was then determined by summing the five scores.
Two days before the commencement of the intervention (baseline) as well as one day after the end of overloading and tapering phases, players
Sven Schneider, Johannes Sauer, Gregor Berrsche and Holger Schmitt
with swift directional changes, lateral movements, and explosive jumps put a lot of strain on the legs in particular. With respect to youth basketball players who spend many years training at high intensity, various issues have been detected, such as bone changes, including a cam‐deformity at the head‐neck junction of the proximal femur (caused by bony protrusions resulting from stress on the growth plate, which can lead to restricted mobility; Siebenrock et al., 2011 ).
The particular relevance of pain among youth athletes in general is, however, not reflected in