Ahmed Waqas, Aqsa Iftikhar, Zahra Malik, Kapil Kiran Aedma, Hafsa Meraj and Sadiq Naveed
size (1200) and response distribution of 50% ( Kane, 2019 ). For regression analysis, a minimum of 194 participants were required for an anticipated effect size of 0.15 (f 2 ), alpha error of 0.05 and statistical power of 95 and 14 predictors. The participants responded to a self-administered paper based survey comprising of five parts: a) demographics b) Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), c) Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), d) Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and e) PerceivedStress Scale-4 (PSS-4). Time for completion of the
Katja Koelkebeck, Maja Pantovic Stefanovic, Dorota Frydecka, Claudia Palumbo, Olivier Andlauer, Florian Riese, Nikolina Jovanovic and Mariana Pinto da Costa
- participating in research when a medical student or psychiatry trainee - mentoring
- focused on adult psychiatry, search terms ‘psychiatry’ AND ‘research’ were not followed-up due to the high number of hits
Iversen et al., 2014
Cross-sectional survey, interviews
157/227 (69.2%) mentees (clinician scientist fellows and clinical lecturers) and mentors (professors)
Impact of mentoring:
- mentee’s age
- the frequency and duration of meetings
- mentee’s expectations
- the quality of the mentee
- mentor interaction
- the perceived role of the mentor
Asaduzzaman Khan, Riaz Uddin, Naznin Alam, Shuhana Sultana, Mahbub-Ul Alam and Rushdia Ahmed
have resulted in a volunteer bias. Although the translation process was thorough ( Williamson et al., 2000 ), it is difficult to assess how the study participants in Bangladesh perceived the translated scale items, especially when the survey was self-administered. Hence, the possibility of misinterpretation of the items from the study participants cannot be ruled out. Although CES-D-10 was previously used in Bangladeshi adolescents ( Khan et al., 2017 ), the cut-off of ≥ 10 to represent depressive symptoms has not been validated in Bangladesh. This is likely to
S M Yasir Arafat, Konstantinos Papadopoulos, Mohammad S I Mullick and Md. Saleh Uddin
abuser, or HIV infected ( Chandler et al., 2015 ). However, some people have these characteristics and are responsible for adverse childhood experiences, which may raise the perceivedstress and initiate or precipitate risky health behaviours for some children ( Chandler et al., 2015 ). Growing evidence revealed both short- and long-term adversities to health and well-being due to adverse life experiences in childhood, particularly when adversities are enduring, cumulative, or occurring during sensitive periods in early developing phase ( Masten & Barnes, 2018
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Ewa Dziurzyńska, Beata Pawłowska and Emilia Potembska
„Vesalius”. Instytut Psychiatrii i Neurologii: 2000.
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Faruk Abdullahi Mohammed, Kehinde Kazeem Kanmodi, Omotayo Francis Fagbule, Miracle Ayomikun Adesina, Nwafor Jacob Njideka and Hamza Abubakar Sadiq
To relieve stress
Other reasons, such as
Because of peer pressure
The majority (32/45) of the participants wanted to quit shisha smoking habit. Amongst those participants who wanted to quit shisha smoking habit, only 18 of them indicated that they made efforts at quitting the behaviour within the past 1 year ( Table 2 ). Only 66.7% (28/42) and 65.6% (21/32) of those participants who had a close friend
continuous increase in irritability during the month
anxiety and irritability were increased during Ramadan
the effect is stronger in smokers
self-selection of volunteers
Koushali, Hajiamini, Ebadi, Bayat, Khamseh 2013
Effect of Ramadan on emotional reactions of nurses
pre-post follow up
Depression, Anxiety and Strees Scales (DASS)
reduction of DASS scores in nurses
depression and stress levels were significantly reduced after in comparison with before the holy month