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Romualdas Malinauskas and Vilija Malinauskiene

Introduction Researchers have investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and psychological wellbeing in a number of ways and from different disciplinary perspectives, examining various associations with other variables. The researchers within the field of sport and exercise psychology have focused on potential mediating variables which can account for this relationship, for instance, perceived social support ( Roohafza et al., 2016 ; Smith et al., 1995 ) and perceived stress ( Laborde et al., 2016 ; Raedeke and Smith, 2004 ; Roohafza

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Paulina Morga, Martyna Podborączyńska, Lilianna Jaworska and Joanna Szczepańska-Gieracha

., Leng V., Personality, meta-mood experience, life satisfaction, and anxiety in Australian versus Singaporean students. Current Psychology, 2007, 26 (2), 109-120. [24] Bayram N., Bilgel N., The prevalence and socio-demographic correlations of depression, anxiety and stress among a group of university students. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 2008, 43 (8), 667-672. [25] VanKim N., Nelson T., Vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress and socializing among college students, Am. J. Health Promotion, 2013, 28 (1), 7

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Filipe Manuel Clemente, Bruno Mendes, Sarah da Glória Teles Bredt, Gibson Moreira Praça, André Silvério, Sandro Carriço and Emanuel Duarte

,d [2.45;2.57] 2.49 a,d [2.42;2.56] Stress 1.79 b [1.75;1.84] 1.70 a,f [1.66;1.73] 1.77 [1.72;1.83] 1.81 [1.73;1.89] 1.77 [1.72;1.82] 1.79 b [1.74;1.84] Sleep 2.67 b,e,f [2.61;2.74] 2.50 a,f [2.44;2.55] 2.49 f [2.41;2.58] 2.58 [2.36;2.80] 2.49 a,f [2.41;2.56] 2.28 a,b,c,e [2.22;2.34] Legend: Significant different from M-4 a ; M-3 b ; M-2 c ; M-1 d ; M-0 e ; M f Discussion This study aimed to compare the perceived training load (internal load) and wellness status between training sessions and matches in

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Joanna Basiaga-Pasternak

and sports experiences. The way they perceive themselves and others together with their beliefs, will also become the basis of their social interactions and their general health. Negative and maladaptive beliefs may lead to depression disorders. These occur due to a misinterpretation of events and negative representations of oneself, the world and the future (called the cognitive triad) ( Knapp and Beck, 2008 ). The way of perceiving oneself and the surrounding world plays an important role in coping with stress, including the stress related to sports competition

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Petros G. Botonis, Argyris G. Toubekis and Theodoros I. Platanou

assess general indicators of players’ wellness. The questionnaire was comprised of five questions related to perceived fatigue, sleep quality, general muscle soreness, stress levels and mood with each question scored on a five-point scale (McLeanet al., 2010). The questionnaire was completed daily upon awakening and concerned the preceding daily training load. The overall wellness was then determined by summing the five scores. Two days before the commencement of the intervention (baseline) as well as one day after the end of overloading and tapering phases, players

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Matthias Wilhelm Hoppe, Christian Baumgart, Thomas Hilberg, Jürgen Freiwald and Udo Frank Wehmeier

perceived exertion (RPE) in response to match-play ( Gomes et al., 2014 ; Hornery et al., 2007 ; Mendez- Villanueva et al., 2007 ; Smekal et al., 2001 ). This plethora of research has led to an evidence based framework of tennis exercise physiology summarized in reviews ( Fernandez-Fernandez et al., 2009 ; Kovacs, 2007 ). Recently, a new level of regulation of cellular processes has been identified. MicroRNAs (miRs) are ~22 nucleotides long non-coding RNAs that regulate the gene expression on a posttranscriptional level by multiple miR:mRNA interactions, leading to

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Nobuki Ishii and Saori Osaka

References Aldwin CM, Stress, coping, and development. Guilfod Press. New York, 1994. Aldwin CM, Revenson TA. Does coping help? Reexamination of the relation between coping and mental health. J Pers Soc Psychol, 1987. 53: 337-348. Barnett LM, Morgan PJ, Van Beurden E, Beard JR. Perceived sports competence meditates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment. The Int J of behavioral nutrition and

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Szymon Pasiut, Katarzyna Juda, Elżbieta Mirek and Jadwiga Szymura

Abstract

Introduction: Fatigue is one of the three major symptoms affecting about 70-90% of multiple sclerosis patients (MS, ICD-10 G35), and a predominant symptom in nearly 50% of the patients. Fatigue is defined as a subjective feeling of lack of energy to start and continue an activity, which is not related to depression, or muscle weakening. There are similarities and differences between the fatigue experienced by healthy individuals, and the fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients. In both instances, fatigue becomes more intense as a result of stress, or physical and mental effort. Fatigue usually subsides after a rest, or a good night’s sleep. In MS patients, fatigue can be caused by even light physical, or mental exertion, and it takes longer than normal to go away. Rest, or sleep do not reduce its intensity.

Aim of the study: The main objective of the study was to assess the effect of a two-week rehabilitation programme on the perceived level of fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients.

Material and methods: The study included 32 patients with clinically confirmed MS who underwent a comprehensive 2-week rehabilitation programme. The study was conducted at the “Ostoja” Centre for Multiple Sclerosis Patients in Wola Batorska from 15 July to 13 October 2013. It was based on a self-designed questionnaire which contained the basic patient data (age, sex), information on duration of the disease, type of MS the patient had been diagnosed with, as well as the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale, and the Fatigue Severity Scale. The respondents were assessed twice: on the first and last day of their stay in the Centre. The statistical analysis was carried out using the STATISTICA 10.0 software.

Results: The analysis revealed a statistically highly significant dependence between the two-week rehabilitation programme and the perceived level of fatigue. This means that the perceived level of fatigue in MS patients was significantly reduced as a result of the rehabilitation programme used.

Conclusions: After the two-week rehabilitation programme, the perceived level of fatigue in MS patients significantly decreased. The two-week rehabilitation programme significantly reduced the number of patients suffering from chronic fatigue symptoms as assessed on the Fatigue Severity Scale.

Open access

Maria Brudnik

Perception of Self-Efficacy and Professional Burnout in General Education Teachers

Purpose. The objective of the study was to determine to what degree general perception of self-efficacy protects general education teachers in Poland (educational stages II-IV) against professional burnout, and whether teachers of various subjects display any differences in this respect. Basic procedures. The study was carried out between April and June 2005 on a sample of 404 teachers (women n = 310, men n = 94). The diagnosis of the burnout syndrome was based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The perception of coping competences in teachers facing professional stress was measured with the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) (Polish version) by R. Schwarzer, M. Jerusalem and Z. Juczyński. Main findings. Teachers are characterized by a high level of self-efficacy perception. Conclusions. As a factor preventing development of the three-dimensional burnout syndrome, perception of self-efficacy protects teachers against a loss of professional satisfaction, increasing emotional exhaustion and a tendency to depersonalize their pupils. Teachers of various subjects perceive the preventive role of self-efficacy differently.

Open access

István Csáki, Zsolt Szakály, Barbara Fózer-Selmec, Selmeci Zoltán Kiss and József Bognár

References Ames, C. (1992). Achievement goals, motivational climate, and motivational processes. In G.C. Roberts (Ed.), Motivation in sport and exercise (pp. 161-176). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Anshel, M.H., Jamieson, J. & Raviv, S. (2001). Coping with acute stress among male and female Israeli athletes. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 31, 271-289. Armour, K. & MacDonald, D. (Eds.) (2012). Research methods in physical education and youth sport. London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group