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Despina Klonari, Konstantinos Pastiadis, Georgios Papadelis and George Papanikolaou


The present study was carried out to determine whether recorded musical tones played at various pitches on a clarinet, a flute, an oboe, and a trumpet are perceived as being equal in loudness when presented to listeners at the same A-weighted level. This psychophysical investigation showed systematic effects of both instrument type and pitch that could be related to spectral properties of the sounds under consideration. Level adjustments that were needed to equalize loudness well exceeded typical values of JNDs for signal level, thus confirming the insufficiency of A-weighting as a loudness predictor for musical sounds. Consequently, the use of elaborate computational prediction is stressed, in view of the necessity for thorough investigation of factors affecting the perception of loudness of musical sounds.

Open access

Chiung-Yao Chen

and reassessment of the SERVQUAL Scale , Journal of Retailing, 67 , 420–405. 21. R yherd E.E., W aye K.P., L jungkvist L. (2008), Characterizing noise and perceived work environment in a neurological intensive care unit , Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 123 , 747–756. 22. S androck S., S chütte M., G riefahn B. (2010), Mental strain and annoyance during cognitive performance in different traffic noise conditions , Ergonomics, 53 , 8, 962–971. 23. S ato S., Y ou J., J eon Y. (2007), Sound quality characteristics of

Open access

Emilia Irzmańska

References [1] Bugajska J., Zużewicz K., Szmauz-Dybko M., et al.(2007). Cardiovascular Stress, Energy Expenditure and Subjective Perceived Ratings of fire Fighters During Typical Fire Suppression and Rescue Tasks. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 13, 323-331 [2] Coca A., Wiliams W.J., Roberge R.J., Powell J.B., (2010). Effects on fire fighter protective ensembles on mobility and performance, Applied Ergonomics, 41(4), 636-41. [3] Council Directive 89/656/EEC, 1989. on the minimum

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Lenuţa Trandafir

References 1. Stress is an internal response to a stimulus or external situation, named stressor or stress factor. However, a person can be affected by a stressor, while someone else not. More people exposed to stressors, even traumatized, succed to adapt to situation. Other people manifest intense psychological symptoms and usually for a long time. 2. C. Thomas, Horia Dumitru Pitariu, “From Socialism to Service: Developing Human Resource Management for a Market Responsive Economy”, Paper presented at the meeting of the From

Open access

Crenguţa Mihaela Macovei

- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 199 (2015), pp. 472 - 478, 2015. [8] Alyami, M., Melyani, Z., Al Johani, A., Ullah, E., Alyami, H., Sundram, F., Hill, A., Henning, M., The Impact of Self-Esteem, Academic Self-Efficacy and Perceived Stress on Academic Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study of Saudi Psychology Students, European Journal of Educational Sciences (EJES), Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 51-68, 2017. doi: 10.19044/ejes.v4no3a5URL: [9] Alegre, A., Academic self-efficacy, self- regulated learning and

Open access

Anna Kwaśna, Stefan Szczepan, Aleksandra Spirydowicz and Krystyna Zatoń

training issues in synchronized swimming. Clinics in Sports Medicine. 1999, 18(2) 437-445; 9. Driscoll H., Gaviria S., Goodwill S. Analysing Splash in Competitive Diving. Procedia Engineering. 2014, 72, 26-31; 10. Zatoń K., Kwaśna A. Wartości rekreacyjne, jako aspekt aktywności ruchowej w wodzie/Recreational values of water exercise. Rozprawy naukowe AWF we Wrocławiu, 2011, 34, 176-180; 11. Neil R., Hanton, S., Mellalieu S.D., Fletcher D. Competition stress and emotions in sport performers: The role of further appraisals