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personal reactions in the walking behaviour study (Ewing & Handy 2009). What people perceive is the result of experiences, attitudes and interpretation of the environment. The reactions of pedestrians to a place - such as perceived safety, well-being or interest - are difficult to assess objectively, directly and by external analysts (Ewing & Handy 2009; Talen & Koschinsky 2013 ). Evaluation of walkability When considering walkability as a broader concept, it includes quantitative objective characteristics (infrastructure, land use etc.) as well as qualitative features

living in Kuwait? P < 0.001 Significant Non-Kuwaitis that have been living in Kuwait for 1 to 5 years use buses. After this period, there is a trend towards driving private cars. Source: Jamal 2015 The analysis suggests significant results in support of the research hypotheses. Only the first hypothesis was not supported. Moreover, perceptions of the daily commute vary by nationality and gender. Non-Kuwaitis have more neutral perceptions of commuting; Kuwaitis perceive commute travel time as either wasted time or valuable time, with, male commuters more stressed than

are not always perceived, however, as an integral component of regeneration programmes and projects. Long-awaited regulations on urban policy have appeared in recent years. In October 2015, the National Urban Policy 2023 ( Krajowa Polityka Miejska 2023 [KPM]) document was approved by the Council of Ministers. In the same month and the same year, the Polish Parliament approved the Regeneration Act (Ustawa o Rewitalizacji [UoR]). On the other hand, issues concerning climate have been included in the document approved by the Council of Ministers in 2013, entitled

response to the pressure of formal regulations and informal social control, usually adapt to the situation. The factors mentioned above encourage conformist behaviour, as the following account suggests: Figure 4 Information slip prohibiting parking (Krakow, 2017) Source: photo by Marcjanna Nóżka I called the midwife, the midwife came over and I called security… between contractions I called: ‘You know what, the car’s a Multipla (...) I’d really like to stress that if the police come, if they could not give a fine, because it’s a midwife, because I’m having a baby right

heritage management ( Shackely 1998 , 2001 ). The examples presented in this article intend to shed light on the role social practice plays in the ‘life’ of a monument. My major interest is to find possible reasons or explanations why a monument becomes unsuccessful or rejected? In the following, I stress the importance of social practice as a crucial element in the fate of a monument. I argue that public acceptance of a memorial largely hinges on whether it is capable of addressing and engaging with its visitors. This factor is dependent not only on the aesthetics of

’ ( Smagacz-Poziemska 2015 ), the author decided to determine how the ‘new’ centre is perceived by its users and what patterns of usage they established during its first two years of operation. The study lasted from March to June 2017 and took the form of standardised interviews with a sample of 220 users of the centre of Katowice who study, work, and spend their leisure time in these spaces. The sample was selected on a targeted and convenience basis, depending on the accessibility of respondents, with half of the sample consisting of women and half of men, and with equal

the message conveyed by the interest in enclave development and the persistence of conventional suburbs. (…) Unexamined faith in an ideology will not produce the same results as careful analyses of the way our communities work’ ( Grant 2007 : 497). J. E. Gyourko and W. Rybczynski (2000: 739) point to the limited number of market studies on consumer demand for New Urbanism developments. The authors also stress (2000: 734) that the development of new urbanist projects is often blocked by the perceived risk of such investments expressed by investors and developers, and

miejskiej. Przykład Poznania Rozwój Regionalny i Polityka Regionalna 37 77–86 [in Polish] Cardais, S. A. & Boissevain, J. (2011) Around the Bloc: Krakow Gets Tough on Graffiti, Chechen Poet Slain in Moscow Transitions Online, 11(22), 29–31. Cardais S. A. Boissevain J. 2011 Around the Bloc: Krakow Gets Tough on Graffiti, Chechen Poet Slain in Moscow Transitions Online 11 22 29 31 Curtis, A., Mills, J. W., Kennedy, B., Fotheringham, S. & McCarthy, T. (2007) Understanding the Geography of Post-Traumatic Stress: An Academic Justification for Using a Spatial Video

Moi mali klienci. Partycypacja dzieci w projektowaniu przestrzeni pracownia k., Krakow, (e-book). Available from accessed: 20.06.2018] [in Polish Lafortezza, R. & Carrus, G. & Sanesi, G. & Davies, C. (2009) Benefits and well-being perceived by people visiting green spaces in periods of heat stress Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 8(2), 97–108. Lafortezza R. & Carrus G. & Sanesi G. & Davies C. 2009 Benefits and well-being perceived by people visiting green spaces in periods of heat stress Urban Forestry & Urban

was significantly lower than in the five abovementioned chains. ( Jeronimo Martins z Biedronką… 2015) The Biedronka chain is the fifth discount chain in terms of size in Europe. All its outlets are located on the territory of Poland. The remaining three discount chains present in Poland constitute only a part of a European chain. In this respect, the most important among them is Netto, which has almost 25% of all its European shops ( Table 2 ) located on the territory of Poland. At the same time, it needs to be stressed that discount stores share of the market in