are determinants of travel behaviour. Often, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) ( Ajzen 1991 ), which assumes that behaviour is determined by intentions, is used as the theoretical foundation. Ajzen sees this under the premise of actual behaviour control, implying that a person must be able to translate his/her intention into behaviour in the first place. An intention is composed of the attitude towards a certain behaviour, the subjective norm and the perceived control of behaviour. Attitude describes the personal evaluation of behaviour. The subjective norm
Linda Dörrzapf, Anna Kovács-Győri, Bernd Resch and Peter Zeile
perceptual qualities and personal reactions in the walking behaviour study (Ewing & Handy 2009). What people perceive is the result of experiences, attitudes and interpretation of the environment. The reactions of pedestrians to a place - such as perceived safety, well-being or interest - are difficult to assess objectively, directly and by external analysts (Ewing & Handy 2009; Talen & Koschinsky 2013 ).
Evaluation of walkability
When considering walkability as a broader concept, it includes quantitative objective characteristics (infrastructure, land use etc.) as
Esraa Jamal, David Scott, Ahmed Idris and Gordon Lovegrove
have been living in Kuwait for 1 to 5 years use buses. After this period, there is a trend towards driving private cars.
Source: Jamal 2015
The analysis suggests significant results in support of the research hypotheses. Only the first hypothesis was not supported. Moreover, perceptions of the daily commute vary by nationality and gender. Non-Kuwaitis have more neutral perceptions of commuting; Kuwaitis perceive commute travel time as either wasted time or valuable time, with, male commuters more stressed than female commuters. The significant
Pascal Krauthausen, Michael Leitner, Alina Ristea and Andrew Curtis
of Post-Traumatic Stress: An Academic Justification for Using a Spatial Video Acquisition System in the Response to Hurricane Katrina Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 15(4), 208–219. 10.1111/j.1468-5973.2007.00522.x Curtis A. Mills J. W. Kennedy B. Fotheringham S. McCarthy T. 2007 Understanding the Geography of Post-Traumatic Stress: An Academic Justification for Using a Spatial Video Acquisition System in the Response to Hurricane Katrina Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 15 4 208 219
Grün, A. (2016
, and I believe it should not be considered negligible since ‘multisensory experience of any physical and material environment is inseparable from the cultural knowledge and everyday practices through which the city is built and experienced’ ( Pink 2008 : 96).
Finally, the core results of the mapping process will not be deliberated here, since the layered structure of the collected data goes beyond the scope of this paper. It is, however, important to stress that the photos created during the process of mapping have been used as visual material for photo elicitation
of Leitbilder , as well as of the difficulties of finding an equivalent English term for the concept. At the end, Horst Zimmermann expresses his scepticism regarding the usefulness of the term ‘ Leitbild ’.
In the second study, Gabi Troeger-Weiß, Hans-Jörg Domhardt and Christoph Scheck present an empirical analysis of engines of growth beyond metropolitan areas. In the context of increasing spatial and social polarization in many European countries, it is a highly relevant chapter. The authors stress that in Germany there are numerous rural regions, and even
The current public, political and academic interest in concepts of vulnerability and resilience can at least partly be seen in the light of the financial and economic crisis of the late 2000s and continuing forms of perceived social, political, economic and financial crises in a number of European countries. The author thanks three anonymous reviewers for useful comments that helped improve an earlier version of this paper. This has brought a new dimension to these concepts which have their roots in socio-ecological research. The contribution
Perceiving and dealing with endangerments form part of the history of human society. People have always tried to protect themselves from the dangers they perceive. In relation to dealing with dangers, however, it is possible to identify spatial, social and temporal differences. Thus, for instance, neighbouring coastal regions can differ from one another in the way in which they deal with the threat of storm flooding at a particular time, even though they are exposed to very similar physical environments. In addition, in the same coastal region
disturbances ( Scheffer 2009 ). From the evolutionary perspective resilience is perceived as the ability of complex socio-ecological systems to change, adapt and transform in response to stresses and strains ( Davoudi 2013 : 302). The evolutionary resilience concept is well in tune with the post-modern paradigm. Change and mobility, attributes of this approach, are immanent features of today's world. The networks of relations and interdependencies, the spaces of flow and the growing levels of complexity require interpretative models open and flexible enough to encompass the
has been written in recent times on polycentricity, territoriality and urban governance, particularly in the mainland European context (see for example Hall/Pain 2006 ). In this accumulated body of published essays it would have been valuable to read how these detailed findings on the positionality of German cities in advanced producer services and high technology—two vital sectors of the knowledge economy—can assist or detract from driving the national economy and in providing solutions to the perceived spatiality of the West vs. East ‘divide’ in Germany. These