and innovation within Novosibirsk”, aims to support the high-tech industry – which is facing stiff competition – for the years 2016–2020 ( Municipal support, 2016 ). Since 2008, the city’s Electronic Novosibirsk programme has aimed to use telecommunication technologies for more effective interaction between the city authorities and the local population ( Program Electronic Novosibirsk, 2010 ). Thus, mechanisms for direct interaction of universities, business and authorities are formed. Bristol’s experience is of interest to Novosibirsk. NSU and NSTU campuses are
( Dahrendorf, 2008 : 28). Citizenship requires the underpinning of law, and law typically means national law. These notions of a unitary pattern of citizenship are challenged by ethnic diversity, cultural differences and the prospect of legal pluralism in, for instance, the European Union on the one hand and by post-colonial societies on the other.
In his book Life Chances , Dahrendorf (1979 : 53) had asked, ‘how do open societies remain open, and how do others become that way?’ The answer to that question was ‘a minimal programme of freedom’. The two societies in which
Bonaventure N. Nwokeoma and Amadi Kingsley Chinedu
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