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Bryan S. Turner

( Dahrendorf, 2008 : 28). Citizenship requires the underpinning of law, and law typically means national law. These notions of a unitary pattern of citizenship are challenged by ethnic diversity, cultural differences and the prospect of legal pluralism in, for instance, the European Union on the one hand and by post-colonial societies on the other. In his book Life Chances , Dahrendorf (1979 : 53) had asked, ‘how do open societies remain open, and how do others become that way?’ The answer to that question was ‘a minimal programme of freedom’. The two societies in which