References 15. Zuoyi Zhang, Zongxin Wu, Yuanhui Xu, Yuliang Sun, & Fu Li (2004). Design of Chinese modular high-temperature gas-cooled Reactor HTR-PM. 2nd International Topical Meeting on HIGH TEMPERATURE REACTOR TECHNOLOGY, 8 (China). 16. Kiryushin, A., & Kodochigov, N. (2002). GT-MHR Project. OKB Mechanical Engineering, 5. Nizhny Novgorod (RF) . 17. Ferreira, T. (2003). South Africa’s nuclear programme. Science in Africa (Africa’s First On-Line Science Magazine), 5. 18. Gittus, J
(Overview. Part 2) / Augstas Temperatūras Kodolreaktoru Projekti
J. Ekmanis, E. Tomsons and N. Zeltiņš
P. Suskis, A. Andreiciks, I. Steiks, O. Krievs and J. Kleperis
., & Verbicb, G. (2008). Hydrogen storage for mixed wind-nuclear power plants in the context of a Hydrogen Economy. Intern. J. of Hydrogen Energy, 33, 4463-4475. 4. Menanteau, P., Quéméré, M.M., Le Duigou, A., & Le Bastard, S. (2011). An economic analysis of the production of hydrogen from wind-generated electricity for use in transport applications. Energy Policy, 39, 2957-2965. 5. Aguado, M., Ayerbe, E., & Azcarate, C. (2009). Economical assessment of a windhydrogen energy system using WindHyGen® software. Intern. J. of Hydrogen Energy, 34
Mouhib Mohammed, Chentouf Mouad and Guessous Amina
traitement des différents produits dans la station SIBO Inra – Crra-URTNEQ Tanger Maroc . Unpublished Thesis for professional promotion to Chief Engineer. 10. Scott Barker, F. (2000). Microsoft access 2000. Programmation Edition 2000 . 11. Thu-Quang, Pham, & Gonin, J. J. (1995). Réussir la conduite de projets informatiques . Paris: Editions Eyrolles. 12. World Institute for Nuclear Security. (2011, September). Nuclear Security Culture Rev. 2 (A WINS International Best Practice Guide . WINS publication. 13. Messick, C., & Galan, J. (2012). U
Weronika Maliszewska, Przemysław Sękowski and Izabela Skwira-Chalot
The area of interests of nuclear physics are studies of reactions, wherein atomic nuclei of projectile collide with target nuclei. An amount of energy lost by projectile nucleus during its passing through the target is a major issue – it is important to know how charged particles interact with matter. It is possible to afford this knowledge by using theoretical programs that calculate energy loss applying the Bethe-Bloch equation. Hadrontherapy, which is a field of still growing interest, is based on the interactions of charged particles with matter. Therefore, there exists a need of creating a simple model that could be used to the calculation of dose distributions in biological matter. Two programs (SRIM, Xeloss), used to the calculation of energy loss by nuclear physicist, have been adapted to determine the dose distributions in analogues of human tissues. Results of the calculations with those programs for beams used in hadrontherapy (e.g. 1H, 12C) will be compared with experimental data available in references.
Mohammad Divandari, Mehdi Hashemi-Tilehnoee, Masoud Khaleghi and Mohammadreza Hosseinkhah
). Performance validation on the prototype of control rod driving mechanism for the TRR-II project. Nucl. Eng. Des. , 227 , 195-207. 5. Mousavi Shirazi, S. A., Aghanajafi, C., Sadoughi, S., & Sharifloo, N. (2010). Design, construction and simulation of a multipurpose system for precision movement of control rods in nuclear reactors. Ann. Nucl. Energy , 37 , 1659-1665. 6. Tanaka, A., Futahashi, K., Takanabe, K., Kurimura, C., Kato, J., & Hara, H. (2008). Development of a 3-D simulation analysis system for PWR control rod drive mechanism. Int. J. Pressure Vessels Pip
Qifan Wu, Ziqiang Pan, Senlin Liu and Chunhong Wang
A nationwide survey was conducted in 2014 to investigate environmental outdoor radon level in 33 provincial cities across China. The radon detector used was a passive-type solid-state nuclear track detector, CR-39. Measurements were conducted under the same condition following the quality control programme. Outdoor radon concentrations in China ranged from 3 to 30.0 Bq·m−3. The annual arithmetic and geometric mean radon concentration were 14 and 13.2 Bq·m−3, respectively. The radon concentrations in the locations near or along coastline were lower than the average value, while those located in the inland area were higher. As a whole, the result showed no big difference from the data measured during the period 1983–1998. It demonstrated that the outdoor radon concentration level in China has not been changing remarkably for 20 years.
Jerzy Cetnar, Grażyna Domańska, Paweł Gajda and Jerzy Janczyszyn
References 1. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. (2002). Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) and Fast Reactors (FR) in advanced nuclear fuel cycles: A comparative study. Paris, France. 2. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. (2009). Independent evaluation of the MYRRHA project: Report by an international team of experts. Paris, France. 3. Billebaud, A., Baeten, P., Aït Abderrahim, H., Ban, G., Baylac, M., Bergmans, G., Bondoux, D., Bouvier, J., Chabod, S., De Conto, J. M., Dessagne, P., Gaudiot, G., Gautier, J. M., Granget, G
Ireneusz Książek, Andrzej Brosławski, Henryk Janus and Ewa Pawelec
Controlled fusion based on the magnetic confinement of the plasma is one of the main aims of the Euro-fusion programme. In the fusion device, the hydrogen isotopes, in nuclear reactions, will produce helium nuclei. The products, as the ash, will be removed from the plasma in the region of the so-called divertor. Controlling the helium to hydrogen ratio in this ‘exhaust gas’ will provide information about the efficiency of the fusion process as well as of the efficiency of the helium removal system. One of the methods to perform this task is to study the properties of the discharge conducted in such exhaust gas. In this paper, the applicability of the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is studied. This preliminary experiment shows a great potential in applicability of this kind of discharge. The optical as well as pulse-height spectra were studied, both revealing very promising properties. In the optical spectrum, one can observe well separated hydrogen and helium spectral lines, with intensities of the same order of magnitude. Moreover, in the registered spectral region, the molecular spectra are negligible. The pulse-height spectra reveal very distinct shape in helium and hydrogen. Checking of this spectrum could provide parallel (redundant) information about the partial pressure of helium in the magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) device exhaust gas.
Magdalena Orszulik, Adam Fic and Tomasz Bury
* This paper is based on a lecture given at the Polish Energy Mix-2014 Conference held at Ustroń Śląski, Poland, on 15–17 October 2014. References 1. OECD/NEA. (2007). Source term assessment, containment atmosphere control systems and accident consequences . (Report CSNI 87/135). Paris. 2. OECD/NEA. (1999). SOAR on containment thermalhydraulics and hydrogen distribution . (Report NEA/CSNI(R) 99/16). Paris. 3. Preußer G., Freudenstein, K. F., & Reinders, R. (1996). Concept for the analysis of hydrogen problems in nuclear power plants
Maciej Skrzypek and R. Laskowski
References 1. Kiełkiewicz, M. (1987). Jądrowe reaktory energetyczne. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowo-Techniczne. 2. Pairot, F. (2011). Nuclear design. The pre-construction safety report (PCSR) (Chapter 4.3). 3. Scientech, Inc. (1998). RELAP5/MOD3 code manual. Volume I: code structure, system models and solution methods. Rockville, Maryland, Idaho Falls, Idaho. 4. Framatome ANP, Inc. (2005). EPR design description. Lynchburg. 5. U.S. NRC. (2013). EPR fi nal safety report (Chapter 4