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Immunohistochemical Aspects of Cell Death in Diabetic Nephropathy

://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs355/en/ 4. BATUMAN V, SOMAN A, SCHMIDT R, SOMAN S. Diabetic Nephropathy. [cited 07.05.2015] Available from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/238946-overview. 5. ADA, Standards of medical care in diabetes-2015 abridged for primary care providers. Clin Diabetes. 2015; 33(2): 97-111. 6. HOTCHKISS RS, STRASSER A, McDUNN JE, SWANSON PE. Cell death. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361(16): 1570-83. 7. ELMORE S. Apoptosis: a review of programmed cell death. Toxicol Pathol. 2007; 35(4): 495-516. 8

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ANA Testing: What should we know about the methods, indication and interpretation?

1 Introduction Autoantibody detection plays an important role in the clinical management of patients with connective tissue disease. Detection of Anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) is a common screening test ordered during initial workup. Though ANA testing is simple, different laboratories vary in their test methodology and reporting format, and that could be confusing. In this review, a general introduction on the common diagnostic assays employed in ANA test, along with issues related to the interpretation would be discussed. In addition, an update on anti

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The Use of PET-CT in Rheumatology

1 Background and technical aspects of PET-CT Positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET-CT) is the fusion of functional and anatomic scan that acquired almost simultaneously. It helps us to visualize the form and activity of potential diseases within the body. It is now a popular nuclear imaging modality for the evaluation of cancer, fever or inflammation of unknown origin. The differential diagnosis sometimes includes the rheumatic disorders. It is based on the fact that the glucose transporters are up regulated on cell membrane secondary to

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