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Electrical impedance tomography methods for miniaturised 3D systems

migration of cells during epithelial stratification. The cultured cells are adherent on the electrodes, modulating the interface impedance. Rahman et al. [ 31 ] used impedance spectroscopy to map in vitro cellular morphology using a circular 2D microelectrode array with 8 peripheral electrodes and a central counter electrode. Sun et al. [ 32 ] imaged a multi-nuclear single cell mould Physarum polycephalum grown on a 2D chip consisting of 16 equally spaced electrodes at the periphery of a circular cell culture chamber (Ø 6 mm). Meir and Rubinsky [ 33 ] presented a

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Transient bioimpedance monitoring of mechanotransduction in artificial tissue during indentation

described previously. In order to examine the cellular viability post encapsulation, sections of 1 mm thickness were taken from the centre of alginate discs containing 3T3 cells using a sterilized blade. The sections were immersed in 0.2 μL calceinacetoxymethylester (calcein-AM) for 15 min and 2.5 μL propidiumiodide (PI) for 5 min in S-DMEM at 37 o C. The calcein-AM was cleaved to form calcein in the presence of esterases in live cells resulting in photon emission at a wavelength around 515 nm. In the case of dead-cells, the PI penetrated the cell and nuclear membrane

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Testing miniaturized electrodes for impedance measurements within the β-dispersion – a practical approach

plasma) surrounded by an insulating membrane (plasma membrane). The extracellular space is filled with electrolyte as well, but may have a very distinct conductivity with respect to the conductivity of the cytoplasm. Although the cytoplasm contains membrane systems (e.g. endoplasmatic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, nuclear membrane or other membrane enclosed organelles) a pure resistive model for this part is often sufficient for a practical approach [ 29 ; 30 ]. Since intact cell membranes show a low conductance, the low frequency current (f < 10 kHz) will

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