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, but it is also important to provide the diagnosis and prevent symptoms of the mass effect. 11 In addition to microsurgery, several new techniques are used in brain tumour surgery, such as frameless, image-guided neuronavigation, preoperative functional MRI, fiber tracking and transcranial magnetic stimulation, intraoperative ultrasound and MRI, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (including direct cortical stimulation), fluorescence-guided removal of malignant gliomas, stereotactic needle biopsy, neuroendoscopy, awake surgery and brachytherapy. These novel