, D. P., Diamond, A., de St. Aubin, E., & Mansfield, E. (1997). Stories of Commitment: The Psychosocial Construction of Generative Lives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 72, 3, 678-694. Olejnik, M. (2003). Średnia dorosłość. Wiek średni [Middle adulthood. Middle age]. In: B. Harwas-Napierała, & J. Trempała, (Eds.). Psychologia rozwoju człowieka [Human developmental psychology]. (pp. 234-257). Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. Peterson, C., & Park, N. (2007). Klasyfikacja i pomiar sił charakteru
References Berntsen, D., & Rubin, D.C. (2002). Emotionally charged autobiographical memories across the life span: The recall of happy, sad, traumatic, and involuntary memories. Psychology and Aging, 17 (4), 636-652. doi: 10.1037//0882-79126.96.36.1996 Berscheid, E. (1994). Interpersonal relationships. Annual Review of Psychology, 45, 79-129. Blagrove, M., Fouquet, N.C., Henley-Einion, J.A., Pace-Schott, E.F., Davies, A.C., Neuschaffer, J.L., & Turnbull, O.H. (2011). Assessing the dream-lag effect for REM and NREM
The article attempts to describe adonization, a specific tactic for exerting influence which employs physical attraction, as well as its determinants. The article presents a proprietary model of determinants and motivational mechanisms which constitute the basis of the attitude toward adonization. A cycle of 3 studies on individual determinants for the attitude toward adonization was described. Results of study 1 (50 women and 50 men) confirmed that male gender, psychological masculinity, narcissism, Machiavellianism and high self-monitoring were correlates of a positive attitude toward adonization. Study 2 (36 women and 36 men) showed that extraversion was the predictor of a positive attitude toward adonization of men and women and that agreeableness was the predictor of a less positive attitude of women. In Study 3 (91 women and 88 men aged 18-63) it was established that there were no differences in the attitude toward adonization in young and middle-aged men. Comparison among young and middle-aged women proved that younger women had a more positive attitude toward adonization in the cognitive and in the affective components than older women
In accordance with the concept of A. Adler (1933/1986) - the community feeling is an individual characteristic which is relatively stable throughout life. It refers to an inner relationship of one person with other people: a feeling of unity with others or separation from others. People with high community feeling are motivated in their actions by striving towards the common good, whereas people with low community feeling intend to exhibit their superiority over others in their actions, which would allow them to compensate for their inner feeling of inferiority. On the basis of the Adler concept the following hypotheses were formulated: There is a negative connection between the community feeling and anxiety. The community feeling is positively connected with self-esteem and psychological well-being. A slight increase in the community feeling can be observed with age. The community feeling increases in the age of middle adulthood. 585 people between 20 to 65 years of age were examined. Methods: Community Feeling Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being. The hypotheses assumed were verified.
In middle adulthood the intensity of stress is significantly higher than in the preceding developmental period. This stress is particularly significant in the case of chronically ill women, including those with type 2 diabetes. In this group, the disease-related stress intensifies the difficulties generated by the decrease of age-related organismic resources and in many instances impairs the quality of life. Therefore, an ability to cope with difficult situations is of crucial importance. The aim of the research was to estimate the general level of life-satisfaction, as well as the frequency and effectiveness of proactive coping strategies in a group of middle adulthood women with type 2 diabetes compared to women not suffering from diabetes. The study was conducted with methods which have acknowledged psychometric properties (SWLS, WHOQoL - BREF, PCI) as well as a survey collecting sociodemographic data. Women suffering from type 2 diabetes are less satisfied with their prior and current life, health and the physical dimension of their lives and environment. Only partially do they employ proactive coping strategies different from those used by the women from the healthy group. For life-satisfaction in its various aspects it is particularly important for the diabetic women to more often use the strategy of reflective coping and to less often seek emotional support while using the strategy of preventive coping or avoidance. The proactive strategies directed at anticipated stress are connected with the level of life-satisfaction and considered to be health resources.
Maria Kielar-Turska and Marta Białecka-Pikul
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Krzysztof Mudyń and lina Kałużna-Wielobób
., Ren, F., & Kuroiwa, S. (2008). The Creation of a Chinese Emotion Ontology Based on How Net. Engineering Letters, 16(1), 166-171. Yinon,Y., Mayraz, S., & Fox, S. (1994). Age and the false-consensus effect. The Journal of Social Psychology, 134(6), 717-725.
Krzysztof Nowak and Tomasz Duda
in Middle and Later Adulthood: Buffering Losses by Rescaling Goals. Psychology and Aging, 9, 265-273. Cacioppo, J. T., Fowler, J. H., Christakis, N. A. (2009) JamesAlone in the Crowd: The Structure and Spread of Loneliness in a Large Social Network. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97. 977-991. Cerstensen L. L., Isaacowitz D. M., Charles S. T. (1999). Taking Time Seriously: A Theory of Socioemotional Selectivity. American Psychologist, 54. 165-181. Carstensen, L. L. (1993
Magdalena Dunajska, Anna Szymanik and Janusz Trempała
-1313. Pinquart, M. (2001). Age differences in perceived positive affect, negative affect, and affect balance in middle and old age. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2 , 375-405. Scheibe, S. and Carstensen, L.L. (2010). Emotional aging: Recent findings and future trends. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Science, 65B (2), 135-144. Siegrist, M. (1997). Test-retest reliability of different versions of the Stroop test. Journal of Psychology, 131 (3), 299-306. Sliwinski, M.J. and Hall, C.B. (1998). A
Agnieszka Pietraszkiewicz, Michèle C. Kaufmann and Magdalena M. Formanowicz
of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44, 84-105. Locke, K. D., & Nekich, J. (2000). Agency and Communion in Naturalistic Social Comparison. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 864-874. Logan, J.R., Ward, R., & Spitze, G. (1992). As old as you feel: Age identity in middle and later life. Social Forces, 71, 451-467. Mahalik, J.R., Burns, S.M., & Syzdek, M. (2007). Masculinity and perceived normative health behaviors as predictors of men’s health behaviors. Social Science & Medicine, 64, 2201