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C. H. Keith

Abstract

To evaluate the effects of dilution and filtration on the particle size of tobacco smoke, a cyanoacrylate fixation technique has been applied directly to smoke issuing from a cigarette. This fresh, undiluted smoke has appreciable numbers of particles with diameters less than 0.1 and relatively few particles with diameters greater than 0.5 micrometer. For a middle puff on an unfiltered tobacco cigarette, the median and mass median diameters are 0.20 and 0.32 micrometer. The experimental method involves the injection of cyanoacrylate vapor directly into the issuing smoke stream, collecting a sample of fixed particles on a membrane filter, and the use of image analysis to separate, size and count individual particles. Aging of undiluted smoke for up to 1.4 seconds essentially doubles the number and mass median diameters and decreases the particulate concentration in line with coagulation theory. Different puffs on unfiltered cigarettes have little effect on the size distribution and particulate concentration. Addition of a filter removes both larger and smaller particles, and tends to skew the distribution to smaller sizes. The reduction in particulate concentration in filtered smoke is as expected from nicotine removal efficiencies. Filter dilution tends to skew the size distribution to larger sizes, while tobacco column dilution has no great effect. Particulate concentration correlates well with overall dilution levels.

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Andi Abeshi, Vincenza Precone, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Benedetto Falsini and Matteo Bertelli

. Leber’s congenital amaurosis and the role of gene therapy in congenital retinal disorders Int J Ophthalmol. 2017; 10(3): 480-484. 11. Maclachlan TK, Lukason M, Collins M, Munger R, Isenberger E, Rogers C, Malatos S, Dufresne E, Morris J, Calcedo R, Veres G, Scaria A, Andrews L, Wadsworth S. Preclinical safety evaluation of AAV2-sFLT01- a gene therapy for age-related macular degeneration. Mol Ther. 2011;19(2):326-334. 12. Stone EM, Aldave AJ, Drack AV et al. Recommendations for genetic testing of inherited eye diseases: report of the

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Wang Jun, Tang Lingyu, Zhang Xianyong and Luo Yuyan

Development Project of Sichuan Normal University (251 Project); Open experimental project of Sichuan Normal University (No.KFSY2017044); Development and Funding Program for Middle-aged Core Teachers of Chengdu University of Technology (KYGG201519), University innovative research project of Sichuan province (15TD0004). References [1] Pawlak, Z. (1991). Rough Sets. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Pawlak Z. 1991 Rough Sets Kluwer Academic Publishers [2] Bishop, C. M. (2006). Pattern recognition and machine learning. Company New York Ny, 16(4), 140–155. Bishop C. M

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Andrzej Plak, Piotr Bartmiński and Ryszard Dębicki

associated human health risk in a town in Jiangsu Province, China. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 122, 198-204, doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.07.018 Kociuba D., 2011. Lublin spatial and functional development from the Middle Ages to the Present (in Polish). Wyd. Marszałek, Toruń, Poland. Krysiak A. and Karczewska A., 2007. Arsenic extractability in soils in the areas of former arsenic mining and smelting, SW Poland. Scie. Tot. Environ., 379, 190-200, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.09.031 Kuo S., 1996. Phosphorus. In: Methods of soil analysis Part 3. Chemical

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Aliyeh Salehi, Seyfollah Fallah and Ali Abasi Sourki

-60. Gattinger A., Bausenwein U., and Bruns C., 2004. Microbial biomass and activity in composts of different composition and age. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci., 167, 556-561. Gheysari M., Mirlatifi S.M., Bannayan M., Homaee M., and Hoogenboom G., 2009. Interaction of water and nitrogen on maize grown for silage. Agric. Water Manag., 96, 809-821. Ghosh P.K., Bandyopadhyay K.K., Tripathi A.K., Hati K.M., Mandal K.G., and Misra A.K., 2003. Effect of integrated management of farmyard manure, phosphocompost, poultry manure and inorganic fertilizers for rainfed sorghum

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Niyazi Acer, Nazan Dolu, Gokmen Zararsiz, Mehmet Sait Dogan, Kazim Gumus, Sevgi Ozmen, Ali Yucel Kara, Handan Soysal, Huseyin Per and Mehmet Bilgen

References 1. Tajima-Pozo K, Ruiz-Manrique G, Yus M, Arrazola J, Montañes-Rada F. Correlation between amygdala volume and impulsivity in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Acta Neuropsychiatr 2015; 27(6): 362-7. 2. Carrey N, Bernier D, Emms M, Gunde E, Sparkes S, Macmaster FP, Rusak B. Smaller volumes of caudate nuclei in prepubertal children with ADHD: impact of age. J Psychiatr Res 2012; 46(8): 1066-72. 3. Nagel BJ, Bathula D, Herting M, Schmitt C, Kroenke CD, Fair D, Nigg JT. Altered white

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H Klus, M Kunze, S Koenig and E Poeschl

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Larry C. Frarey and Javier Martinez

-1583. 28. Speizer, F.E., G.A. Colditz, D.J. Hunter, B. Rosner, and C. Hennekens: Prospective Study of Smoking, Antioxidant Intake, and Lung Cancer in Middle-Aged Women (USA); Cancer Causes Control 10 (1999) 475-482. 29. Ebbert, J.O., P. Yang, C.M. Vachon, R.A. Vierkant, J.R. Cerhan, A.R. Folsom, and T.A. Sellers: Lung Cancer Risk Reduction After Smoking Cessation: Observations from a Prospective Cohort of Women; J. Clin. Oncol. 21 (2003) 921-926. 30. Flanders, W.D., C.A. Lally, B.-P. Zhu, S.J. Henley, and M.J. Thun: Lung Cancer Mortality

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Yong Qin, Yuyan Luo, Jingru Lu, Lu Yin and Xinran Yu

Research Center in Sichuan Province (Grant no. SCKCZY2014-YB04), General Program of Sichuan Oil and Gas Development Research Center (Grant no. SKB17-01), Funding Program for Middle-aged Core Teachers of Chengdu University of Technology (KYGG201519), and Special funding for post-doctoral research project of Sichuan in 2017 named “dynamic evolution of multi-system coupling in resource-oriented cities of western China from technology innovation-driven perspective”. References [1] Y. Tong Yi. (1982), The system dynamics of the new branch of business management

Open access

Yong Qin, Yuyan Luo, Yuqing Zhao and Jin Zhang

-based city Development Research Center (Grant no. ZYZX-ZD-1701), General Program of Mineral Resources Research Center in Sichuan Province (Grant no. SCKCZY2014-YB04), General Program of Sichuan Oil and Gas Development Research Center (Grant no. SKB17-01), Funding Program for Middle-aged Core Teachers of Chengdu University of Technology (KYGG201519), and Special funding for post-doctoral research project of Sichuan in 2017 named “dynamic evolution of multi-system coupling in resource-oriented cities of western China from technology innovation-driven perspective