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Peter Douris, Christopher Douris, Nicole Balder, Michael LaCasse, Amir Rand, Freya Tarapore, Aleskey Zhuchkan and John Handrakis

chuan. J Aging Phys Act, 2010; 18: 451-472 Cohn NB, Dustman RE, Bradford DC. Age-related decrements in stroop color test performance. J Clin Psychol, 1984; 40(5): 1244-1250 Douris P, Chinan A, Gomez M, Aw A, Steffens D, Weiss S. Fitness levels of middle aged martial art practitioners. Br J Sport Med, 2004; 38(2): 143-147 Douris PC, Elokda AS, Handrakis JP, Principal S, Rondo E, Bovell J, Coughlin WP, Mastroianni CN, Wong MJ, Zimmerman T. Martial art training enhances the glutathione antioxidant system in middle-aged adults. J Strength Cond Res

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Barbara Kłapcińska, Aleksandra Kroemeke, Magdalena Tataruch, Rafał Tataruch, Izabela Szołtysek-Bołdys, Jarosław Derejczyk, Elżbieta Kimsa and Janusz Iskra

References Barengo N. C., Hu G., Lakka T. A., Pekkarinen H., Nissinen A., Tuomilehto J. Low physical activity as a predictor for total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men and women in Finland. Eur Heart J , 2004, 25:2204-2211 Berlin J. A., Colditz G. A. A meta-analysis of physical activity in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Am J Epidemiol , 1990;132:612-628. Blair S. N., LaMonte M. J., Nichaman M. Z. The evolution of physical activity recommendations

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Joanna Kantyka, Damian Herman, Robert Roczniok and Lidia Kuba

participation rates, fitness, and lipoproteins in men and women aged 50 to 65 years. Circulation, 1995, 91 (10), 2596-2604, doi: 10.1161/01. CIR.91.10.2596. 32. Galan A.I., Palacios E., Ruiz F., Diez A., Arji M., Almar M. et al., Exercise, oxidative stress and risk of cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Protective role of antioxidant functional foods. Biofactors, 2006, 27 (1-4), 167-183, doi: 10.1002/biof.5520270115. 33. Kamijo T., Murakami M., Regular physical exercise improves physical motor functions and biochemical markers in middle-age

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Adam Zajâc, Miłosz Czuba, Stanisław Poprzecki, Zbigniew Waśkiewicz, Jarosław Cholewa, Jan Pilch and Jakub Chycki

References Baumann G. Growth hormone heterogeneity: genes, isohormones, variants and binding proteins. Endocr Rev, 1991. 12: 424-49 Bouillanne O, Reinfray M, Tissandier O, Nasr A, Lahlou A, Cnockaert X, Piette F. Growth hormone therapy in elderly people: an age-delaying drug? Fundam Clin Pharmacol, 1996. 10(5): 416-30 Cummings DE, Merriam GR. Age-related changes in growth hormone secretion: should the somatopause be treated? Semin Reprod Endocrinol, 1999. (14

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Janusz Maciaszek, Damian Skrypnik, Marzena Ratajczak, Rafał Stemplewski, Wiesław Osiński, Paweł Bogdański, Edyta Mądry, Jarosław Walkowiak and Joanna Karolkiewicz

. Relationships between body mass index and well-being in young Australian women Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000 24 10 1360 1369 Available from: 26. Kääriä S., Laaksonen M., Rahkonen O., Lahelma E., Leino-Arjas P., Risk factors of chronic neck pain: a prospective study among middle-aged employees. Eur J Pain , 2012, 16 (6), 911–920, 10.1002/j.1532-2149.2011.00065.x

Open access

Ronald L. Snarr, Ashleigh V. Hallmark, Jason C. Casey and Michael R. Esco

grip strength. A number of subjective claims suggest that the SP and TP provide an advanced, more challenging variation compared to the PU. However, there is no scientific evidence to substantiate or refute such statements. Therefore, research is needed to determine the extent of muscular activation of the primary movers during these types of movements. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the EMG activity of the latissimus dorsi (LD), posterior deltoid (PD), middle trapezius (MT), and biceps brachii (BB) between the PU, SP, and TP. Based upon previous

Open access

Roland van den Tillaar and Atle Hole Saeterbakken

erector spinae during the two exercises. Participants Twelve resistance-trained males (age 23.5 ± 2.6 years, body mass 87.8 ± 21.3 kg, body height 1.81 ± 0.08 m) participated in this study. Each subject had at least two-year experience of resistance training in the prone bridge and weight trained at least twice a week. Seven of the subjects were competitive power-lifters, whereas the others were sprinters at the national level. Inclusion criteria were no recent injuries or pain, which could reduce maximal performance, and the ability to lift 1.2 times one’s own

Open access

Robert Malina, Teresa Sławinska, Zofia Ignasiak, Krystyna Rożek, Katarzyna Kochan, Jarosław Domaradzki and Jarosław Fugiel

References Malina RM, Bouchard C, Bar-Or O. Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity. 2 nd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2004. Eisenmann JC, Malina RM. Age- and sex-associated variation in neuromuscular capacities of adolescent distance runners. J Sports Sci, 2003, 21, 551-557. Malina RM, Geithner CA, O'Brien R, Tan SK. Sex differences in the motor performances of elite young divers. Ital J Sport Sci, 2005, 12, 18-23. Malina RM, Ignasiak Z, Rożek K

Open access

José M. Palao, Policarpo Manzanares and David Valadés

. Hum. Sport Exerc, 2012: 7(3); 714-726 Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB). Height and age structure. In: Development in International Top Volleyball: A technical evaluation of Women´s and Men´s Olympic Volleyball Tournament Atlanta 1996. Münster, Germany: Philipka-Verlag. Ed: Pedersen LH. 98-99; 1997 Fröhner B, Zimmermann B. Development in International Top-Volleyball. A technical Evaluation of Women´s and Men´s Olympic Tournament Atlanta 1996. Münster, Philippka-Verlag; 1997 Fröhner B. Select aspects of

Open access

Agnieszka Dębiec-Bąk, Katarzyna Gruszka, Krzysztof A. Sobiech and Anna Skrzek


Purpose. The aim of the study was to analyse changes in body surface temperature after a cryostimulation session in women of two different age groups. Methods. The study included 21 female university students aged 21 ± 1.8 years and 15 middle-aged women aged 57.8 ± 3.6 years. All participants were subjected to the effects of extreme low temperature in a cryogenic chamber at -120˚C for 3 min. Body surface temperature measures were taken before and immediately after treatment by a thermal imaging camera. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the captured thermographic images was performed for 12 anterior and posterior body areas in the standing position. Results. Differences in body surface temperature were found between both age groups prior to the cryostimulation treatment. Temperatures ranged from 29.55° C to 33.49° C in the younger group and 30.45° C and 32.70° C in the older group for the same body areas. Lower temperatures were observed in the older subject group for all analysed areas. After cryostimulation, greater body cooling was observed in the younger group particularly in the lower limbs. The greatest temperature reduction in both groups was observed in the lower limbs, dropping a maximum of 6.31° C, whereas the lowest variation in temperature was observed in the shoulder area by approximately 2° C. Conclusions. The results of the study showed varied distribution of body surface temperature in both age groups. Lower temperatures of the trunk and shoulders were observed in older women compared with the younger women. Greater body cooling following cryostimulation was observed in the group of younger women particularly in the area of the lower limbs.