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Open access

Weiying Zhang


Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is transmitted mainly through food and water sources. HEV is a major public health problem faced by developing countries. HEV causes large outbreaks of hepatitis E (HE) or acute sporadic infection. HEV can also lead to chronic infection. HEV mainly affects the young, middle-aged people, and pregnant women, who especially display high rates of infection. This study reviews HE while considering its biological characteristics, clinical symptoms, epidemic characteristics, vaccine, and detection methods.

Open access

Guoxiu Lu

persistent hypotension and has no effect on fluid resuscitation) [ 6 ]. At present, the imbalance of proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory factors is the most important pathogenesis of sepsis. Sepsis treatment includes initial resuscitation, anti-infection, fluid resuscitation, and administration of vasoactive drugs and hormones [ 7 ]. 2 Distribution of pathogens Age and immune status have a strong influence on pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites can cause systemic inflammatory response syndrome, severe sepsis, and septic shock. Bacterial