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Muhammad Osama Butt, Nasir Hassan Luck, Syed Mujahid Hassan, Zaigham Abbas and Muhammed Mubarak

Abstract

Spontaneous acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) has been reported to be extremely rare. The condition is defined as a dark pigmentation of the esophagus associated with histologic mucosal necrosis. The exact pathogenesis is still unknown, but several etiologies have been suggested including ischemia, gastric outlet obstruction, hypersensitivity to antibiotics, gastric volvulus and viral infection. We herein present a case of a middle-aged man with end-stage renal disease who presented with AEN following a hemodialysis session. Its diagnosis and management are discussed with reference to the pathogenesis of the condition.

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Jaspreet Kaur, Manoj Malik, Parul Sharma, Sumedha Sangwan and S. Kulandaivelan

the management of diabetes mellitus. Indian J Sci Res 6: 171-181, 2015. 15. Tack C, Pohlmeier H, Behnke T et al. Accuracy evaluation of five blood glucose monitoring systems obtained from the pharmacy. Diabetes Technol Ther 14: 330-337, 2012. 16. Rikli R, Jones C. The reliability and validity of a 6-minute walk test as a measure of physical endurance in older adults. J Aging Phys Act 6: 363-375, 1998. 17. Chetta A, Zanini A, Pisi G, Aiello M, Tzani P, Neri M, Olivieri D. Reference values for the 6-minute walk test in

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Alphonsus N. Onyiriuka, Jackson I. Ikuren and Rita C. Onyiriuka

. Activity, inactivity and obesity: racial, ethnic and age differences among school girls. Am J Public Health 83: 1625-1627, 1993. 30. Bernard L, Lavallee C, Gray-Donald K, Delisle H. Overweight in Cee schoolchildren and adolescents associated with diet, low physical activity, and high television viewing. J Am Diet Assoc 95: 800-802, 1995.

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Shazia Qasim Jamshed, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula and Abdul Kareem Al-Shami

: economic evaluation of data from the Let's Prevent Diabetes cluster-randomised controlled trial. BMJ open 7: e013592, 2017. 11. Bommer C, Heesemann E, Sagalova V, et al. The global economic burden of diabetes in adults aged 20- 79 years: a cost-of-illness study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 5(6): 423-430, 2017. 12. American Diabetes Association. Economic costs of diabetes in the U.S. in 2012. Diabetes Care 36(4): 1033-1046, 2013. 13. Seuring T, Archangelidi O, Suhrcke M. The economic costs of type 2 diabetes: a global

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Olivia Georgescu, Cătălin Nica, Silvia Crăciun, Cristina Toader, Sorin Ioacără and Simona Fica

consumption levels with the cardioankle vascular index (CAVI) is J-shaped in healthy middle-aged Japanese men. Abstract Book EAS Meeting Expert Lyon 494, 2013. 11. Sasaki S, Yoshioka E, Saijo Y et al. Relation between alcohol consumption and arterial stiffness: A cross-sectional study of middle-aged Japanese women and men. Alcohol 47: 643-649, 2013. 12. Naka K, Papathanassiou K, Bechlioulis A et al. Determinants of vascular function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Cardiovasc Diabetol 11: 127-137, 2012. 13. Hughes TM

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Volodymyr Pankiv and Ivan Pankiv

healthy middle-aged men and women. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 121(1-2): 462-466, 2010. 15. Neo JJ, Kong KH. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in elderly patients admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation unit in Tropical Singapore. Rehabil Res Pract. 2016: 9689760, 2016. 16. World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight. [online] Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/ [Accessed 2nd Nov 2016].

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Bondar Andrei-Cristian and Popa Amorin-Remus

. Winkler A, Dlugaj M, Weimar C, et al. Association of diabetes mellitus and mild cognitive impairment in middle-aged men and women. J Alzheimers Dis 42(4): 1269–77, 2014. 5. Christman AL, Matsushita K, Gottesman RF, et al. Glycated haemoglobin and cognitive decline: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Diabetologia 54(7): 1645-52, 2011. 6. Sato N, Morishita R. Roles of vascular and metabolic components in cognitive dysfunction of Alzheimer disease: short- and long-term modification by non-genetic risk factors. Front Aging Neurosci 5

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Shuang-Tong Yan and Hui Tian

References 1. Jorde R, Bonaa KH, Sundsfjord J. Primary hyperparathyroidism detected in a health screening. The Tromso study. J Clin Epidemiol 2000;53:1164-9. 2. Yan ST, Tian H, Li CL, Zong WY, Shao YH, Zhong WW, et al. A preliminary survey of primary hyperparathyroidism in middle-aged and elderly Beijing Chinese. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 2007;46:651-3. 3. Siilin H, Lundgren E, Mallmin H, Mellstrls D, Ohlsson C, Karlsson M, et al. Prevalence of primary hyperparathyroidism and impact on bone mineral density in

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Chee Huei Phing, Lee Syeh Hoa and Tan Xue Hua

://www.ipaq.ki.se/scoring.htm , 2011. 4. Park W, Lee VJ, Ku B, Tanaka H. Effect of walking speed and placement position interactions in determining the accuracy of various newer pedometers. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness 12: 31-37, 2014. 5. Chang CT, Lee PY, Cheah WL. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the young and middle-aged rural population in Sarawak, Malaysia. Malays J Med Sci 19: 27-34, 2012. 6. Yunus AM, Sherina M, Nor Afiah M, Rampal L, Tiew K. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a rural community in Mukim Dengkil, Selangor. Malays J

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Mustapha Diaf, Méghit Boumediene Khaled and Feriel Sellam

, Stein EA et al. Role of the apolipoprotein B-apolipoprotein A-I ratio in cardiovascular risk assessment: a case-control analysis in EPIC-Norfolk. Ann Intern Med 146: 640-8, 2007. 11. Dunder K, Lind L, Zethelius B, Berglund L, Lithell H. Evaluation of a scoring scheme, including proinsulin and the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, for the risk of acute coronary events in middle-aged men: Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM). Am Heart J 148: 596-601, 2004. 12. Lewington S, Whitlock G, Clarke R et al. Blood cholesterol