. The Holy Bible. King James Version. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers. Person, Henry A. (ed.). 1953. Cambridge Middle English lyrics. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Tasioulas, J. A. (ed.). 1999. The makars: The poems of Henryson, Dunbar and Douglas. Edinburgh: Canongate Books. Villon, François. 2013. The testament and other poems. Trans. Anthony Mortimer. Richmond: Alma Classics Ariès, Philippe. 2009. Western attitudes toward death: From the middle ages to the present. London & New York
This article uses Charles S. Peirce’s concept of icon and Judith Butler’s idea of genealogy of gender to study levels of fictionality in the Old English poem Beowulf. It shows that Wealhtheow, the principal female character in the epic, operates as a diegetic reader in the poem. Her speeches, in which she addresses her husband King Hrothgar and Beowulf contain implicit references to the Lay of Finn, which has been sung by Hrothgar’s minstrel at the feast celebrating Beowulf’s victory. It is argued here that Wealhtheow represents herself as an icon of peace-weaving, as she casts herself as a figuration of Hildeburh, the female protagonist of the Lay of Finn. Hildeburh is the sister of Hnæf, the leader of the Danes, and is given by her brother to Finn the Frisian in a marriage alliance. In her role as a peace-weaver, the queen is to weave peace between tribes by giving birth to heirs of the crown. After the courtly minster’s performance of the Lay, Wealhtheow warns her husband against establishing political alliances with the foreigner Beowulf at the expense of his intratribal obligation to his cousin Hrothulf, who is to become king after Hrothgar’s death.
The present article studies Cynewulf’s creative manipulation of heroic style in his hagiographic poem Juliana written around the 9th century A.D. The four poems now attributed to Cynewulf, on the strength of his runic autographs appended to each, Christ II, Elene, The Fates of the Apostles, and Juliana are written in the Anglo-Saxon tradition of heroic alliterative verse that Anglo- Saxons had inherited from their continental Germanic ancestors. In Juliana, the theme of treasure and exile reinforces the allegorical structure of Cynewulf’s poetic creation. In such poems like Beowulf and Seafarer treasure signifies the stability of bonds between people and tribes. The exchange of treasure and ritualistic treasure-giving confirms bonds between kings and their subjects. In Juliana, however, treasure is identified with heathen culture and idolatry. The traditional imagery of treasure, so central to Old English poetic lore, is inverted in the poem, as wealth and gold embody vice and corruption. The rejection of treasure and renunciation of kinship bonds indicate piety and chastity. Also, while in other Old English secular poems exile is cast in terms of deprivation of human company and material values, in Juliana the possession of and preoccupation with treasure indicates spiritual exile and damnation. This article argues that the inverted representations of treasure and exile in the poem lend additional strength to its allegorical elements and sharpen the contrast between secular world and Juliana, who is an allegorical representation of the Church.
Estella Antoaneta Ciobanu
Introduction.” Middle English Alliterative Poetry and Its Background: Seven Essays. Ed. David Lawton. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1982. 1-19. Print. ---. “Englishing the Bible, 1066-1549.” Wallace, ed., 1999. 454-82. Print. Leder, Drew. The Absent Body. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1990. Print. Lipton, Sara. “‘The Sweet Lean of His Head’: Writing about Looking at the Crucifix in the High Middle Ages.” Speculum 80.4 (2005): 1172-208. Print. Megill, Allan. “History, Memory, Identity.” History of the Human Sciences 11
Dana Percec and Andreea Şerban
In Romania, Shakespeare played an important role in the construction of Romania’s cultural identity and in the reshaping of political awareness during the communist dictatorship. In recent years, the Bard’s work has been translated into a contemporary, accessible Romanian language, with theatrical or musical adaptations targeted at a public whose tastes are shaped by popular culture. The authors discuss, from this perspective, two recent adaptations: The Taming of the Shrew (2005), acclimatized to contemporary Romanian realities (names, locations and folk music), and Romeo and Juliet (2009) that relocates the tragedy in the musical genre. The choice of two musical genres popular with the most widely spread segments of the public - the conservative, but less educated middle-aged group of non-theatre-goers and the youth - indicates an attempt, still new for the Romanian cultural market, to accommodate Shakespeare to the interests of two different communities of consumers, so far absent from this country’s high culture circuit.
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References Adams, Percy. Travel Literature Through the Ages. New York: Garland, 1988. Bennett, Josephine. The Rediscovery of Sir John Mandeville. New York: MLA, 1954. Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture. London: Routledge, 1994. Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe. Dir. Andrew Adamson, 2005. Dabydeen, David. Hogarth’s Blacks: Images of Blacks in Eighteenth Century English Art. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1987. Downing, David C. Into the Wardrobe: C
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References Chetwode, Penelope.  2002. Two middle-aged ladies in Andalusia. London: John Murray Travel Classics. Macaulay, Rose.  1986. Fabled shore: From the Pyrenees to Portugal. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Borrow, George. 1841. The Bible in Spain. London: John Murray. Brenan, Gerald. 1943. The Spanish labyrinth: An account of the social and political background of the Civil War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Brenan, Gerald. 1957. South from Granada