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Peter Nagy

Abstract

The article deals with the Hindi language and its use as a language for official purposes from the late Middle Ages until its implementation in the Constitution of India in the year 1949. It reveals various ideas for promoting Hindi as a national (official) language of India. The main focus is on the thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi on Hindi as the lingua franca of India and its role in the replacement of English. Further it describes the process and struggle of its implementation as the official language in the Constituent Assembly of India and concludes with the compromise made by this Assembly.

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Antonio Bueno García

Abstract

Translations done by monks, brothers, or other religious orders have particular characteristics and ethical implications that distinguish them among other kinds of translations. During the Middle Ages, Spanish Franciscans played an important role in the contact of languages and cultures with other people, such as Arabs and Jews, but the course of their linguistic and translation activity was influenced by the times and circumstances.

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Helen Cooper

Abstract

C.S. Lewis’s life as an academic was concerned with the teaching of medieval and Renaissance literature, though both his lectures and his publications also incorporated his extensive knowledge of Greek and Latin classics. He argued that the cultural and intellectual history of Europe was divided into three main periods, the pre-Christian, the Christian and the post-Christian, which he treated as a matter of historical understanding and with no aim at proselytization: a position that none the less aroused some opposition following his inaugural lecture as professor at Cambridge. Ever since his childhood, his interest in the Middle Ages had been an imaginative rather than a purely scholarly one, and his main concern was to inculcate a sense of the beauty of that pre-modern thought world and its value-a concern that set him apart from the other schools of English language and literature dominant in his lifetime.

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Miroslav Ježek

Abstract

Received Pronunciation (RP) is often studied as the pronunciation model in Great Britain and non-English-speaking countries separately. What my paper focuses on is the duality with which RP is essentially endowed: the role(s) in which it has to satisfy the needs of both native and non-native speakers of English.

Whilst the claim that RP has changed recently goes unchallenged, the issue of reflecting these changes in the preferred transcription models is hotly debated. Upton’s model of RP is one that does include several new symbols, motivated by an attempt to ‘ensure that the description of a late twentieth century version the accent […] looks forward to the new millennium rather than back at increasingly outmoded forms’ (2001:352). I discuss the feasibility of adopting Upton’s model of RP as the pronunciation model in non-English speaking countries, where it is desirable to resolve the paradox that ‘most of our teaching is aimed at young people, but the model we provide is that of middle-aged or old speakers’ (Roach 2005: 394).

The observations I make are largely based on my MA research, which is now being modified for the purposes of my Ph.D. I asked undergraduate students of English in England and the Czech Republic to evaluate seven voices ranging from the clearly regional to the unquestionably RP. The objective was to discover which sounds are considered to fall within the scope of RP by students in both countries, which approach avoids treating RP as though it were to include only the sounds ‘allowed by a preconceived model’ (Upton 2000: 78). Further, the respondents were asked to comment on the most salient features in the recordings: what they opted to comment on reveals a marked difference in the role of RP as a model accent in the given countries. Societies which lack a prestigious non-regional accent are often oblivious to the social connotations RP carries. Whilst it seems technically impossible to replace the model accent in all teaching materials all over the world, creating awareness of the fact that a rather outmoded model of RP found in many textbooks may not always be the best option is a necessary step towards ensuring that non-English speaking students are not only understood but that their speech will attract no adverse judgements.

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Oana Cogeanu

References Appiah, Anthony. “The Uncompleted Argument: Du Bois and the Illusion of Race.” “Race”, Writing and Difference. Henry Louis Gates, Jr (ed.). Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. 1985. Print. Bhabha, Homi K. “Signs Taken for Wonders”. The Post-colonial Studies Reader. Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths and Helen Tiffin (eds.). London and New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. 1995. Print. Bolster, W. Jeffrey. Black Jacks: African American Seamen in the Age of Sail

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Sarmite Tubele

References Adams, M. J. (1995) Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print. Massachusetts: A Bradford Book, 494 pp. Anspoka, Z. (2008) Latviešu valodas didaktika. 1.-4. klase. [Didactics of Latvian Language. 1st-4th class]. Rīga: RaKa, 474 lpp. (in Latvian). Bakanova, O. (2010) Skaņu izrunas traucējumu profilakse vidējā pirmsskolas vecuma bērniem: Diplomdarbs. [Sound pronunciation disorder prevention on middle and preschool age children: Diploma]. Rīga: Latvijas

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Zuzana Gažáková

et variétés mixtes de l’arabe à travers l’histoire. Édités par Jérôme Lentin et Jacques Grand’Henry. Louvain-la-Neuve: Université Catholique de Louvain 2008, s. 39 - 61. BLAU, Joshua: The Importance of Middle Arabic for the Understanding of the History of Neo- Arabic. In: Mélanges David Cohen. Textes réunis et édités par Jérôme Lentin and Antoine Lonnet, Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose 2003, s. 111 - 117. BRIEŠKA, Marek: Arabská dvojvariantná komunikácia v prácach Akadémie arabského jazyka - prvá dekáda 21. storočia. In: Jazykovedný

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Patricia Ronan

. Calder, George. 1972. A Gaelic Grammar . Glasgow: Gairm. Clark, Sandra. 2004. Newfoundland English: morphology and syntax. In Bernd Kortmann & Edgar W. Schneider (eds.), A Handbook of Varieties of English , 303-318. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Evans, D.Simon. 1964. A Grammar of Middle Welsh. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. Fiess, Astrid. 2003. Do Be or Not Do Be. Generic and Habitual Forms in East Galway English. In H.L.C. Tristram (ed.), Celtic Englishes III, 169-182. Heidelberg: Winter

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Mariana Oleniak

, Rosamund. 2008. Conventionalized as-similes in English: a problem case. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics. 3-37. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Nevanlinna, Saara. 1993. The Structure of Middle English similes of equality. Early English in the Computer Age: Explorations Through the Helsinki Corpus. 139-170. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Available from: publication/228509486_Support_structure_for_linguistic_creativity_A_computational_analysis_of_creative_irony_in_similes. [Accessed 18th October 2018]. Riabikina Nataliia. 2006

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Kirstin Jeffrey Johnson

. Scott, A.J.. Two Discourses: The Kingdom of the Truth: The Ranges of Christianity. London: Macmillan & Co., 1866. Print. ---. “A Lecture on Popular Education”. The Woolwich Gazette. 10 October 1840. N.p.. Print. ---. Notes of Four Lectures on the Literature and Philosophy of the Middle Ages. Edinburgh: T. Constable, 1857. Print. ---. “On University Education”. Introductory Lectures on the Opening of Owens College, Manchester. London: T. Sowler, 1852. Print. ---. Suggestions on Female Education: Two