Baltic sturgeon. 2006, Abbreviation of lecture, ICAZ FRWG. 13th Fish Remains Working Group, 13th Meeting October 4-9, Program and Abstracts. ICAZ International Council for Archaeozoology, p. 6. Makowiecki D., Chosen problems from the study on animal economy in the early Middle Ages complex of settlements of Pomerania, Great Polish and Low Silesia. 2006a, in : Stan i potrzeby badań nad wczesnym średniowieczem w Polsce - 15 lat później (eds. W. Chudziak, S. Moździoch). UMK Toruń, UW Wrocław- UW Warszawa, pp. 123-150 (in Polish
Antoni Jarczyk, Agata Andrzejewska and Małgorzata Woźniak
Katalin Anita Zagyvainé Kiss, Péter Kalicz, Péter Csáfordi and Zoltán Gribovszki
Models that describe hydrological processes in forests may help to estimate the consequences of forestry interventions or of climate change. The authors employed a hydrologic model for estimation of forest litter interception of a middle-aged sessile oak (Quercus petraea) stand. Antecedent water content and the storage capacity of the forest litter were the main parameters of the model. The antecedent water content of the litter was estimated by the daily precipitation and temperature data, collected in Hidegviz Valley research catchment in a three year measurement period (2006-2008). The measurements were done by an instrument we developed ourselves, where the undisturbed forest litter samples were enclosed in frames and measured in daily time steps.
Kishore S. Rajput
Structural transformation of mechanical tissues during the shift from a freestanding to a climbing habit is a characteristic of lianas, which are increasingly abundant in tropical forests. The modification of mechanical tissue and the evolution of a new growth pattern serve to increase stem flexibility and conductive efficiency. In Ipomoea turbinata Lag. (Convolvulaceae), the stem thickens via the formation of two distinct types of successive cambia: functionally normal successive cambia (producing xylem centripetally and phloem centrifugally), and inverse cambia (producing xylem centrifugally and phloem centripetally). The former originates from pericyclic derivatives (parenchyma cells located outside the primary phloem), while the latter originates from the conjunctive parenchyma located on the inner margin of the secondary xylem formed from vascular cambium. The secondary xylem produced by normal cambia is significantly more abundant than the xylem formed by inverse cambia. During primary growth, intraxylary primary phloem differentiates concomitantly with the protoxylem at the periphery of the pith; additional intraxylary secondary phloem is added from adjacent parenchyma cells as the plant ages. During initiation of every successive cambium, middle cells in the meristem give rise to cambium, and cells on either side of it serve as sites for initiation of future cambia. The functional role of inverse cambia remains unknown and awaits further experimental studies.
Dmitry V. Geltman
les notions «d’element» et de «territoire» phytogeographiques. Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. 1 : 497–512. B raun -B lanquet J. 1923. L’origine et le developpement des flores dans le massif central de France . L. Lhomme, Paris – Zürich. B ruyns P. V., K lak C. & H anáček P. 2011. Age and diversity in Old World succulent species of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae). Taxon 60 (6): 1717–1733. B ruyns P. V., M apaya R. J. & H edderson T. 2006. A new subgeneric classification for Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in southern Africa based on ITS and psbA
M. Ryan, T. Hennessy, C. Buckley, E.J. Dillon, T. Donnellan, K. Hanrahan and B. Moran
available within the NFS dataset to estimate GHG emissions associated with each farm enterprise using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) coefficients, conventions and nationally appropriate emission factors to produce an estimate of total emissions per farm. The methodology utilises a combination of Tier 1 and Tier 2 approaches to estimate GHG emissions per farm (tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO 2 eq) by applying relevant IPCC coefficients to animal numbers (on the basis of age category). IPCC Tier 1 utilises simple methods with default values
D. Johnston, D.A. Kenny, M. McGee, S.M. Waters, A.K. Kelly and B. Earley
Introduction Enteritis and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) are the most common diseases resulting in mortality in neonatal calves and calves from 1 mo to 6 mo of age, respectively ( Sivula et al ., 1996b ; Svensson et al ., 2006 ; Gulliksen et al ., 2009 ). Diseases during the calf-rearing period are known contributors of substantial economic losses to the dairy industry ( Waltner-Toews et al ., 1986 ; Raboisson et al ., 2013 ). Dairy calf mortality rates vary among countries, with estimates as low as 3.1% being reported in Sweden and Denmark
Romana Prausová, Lucie Marečková, Adam Kapler, L’uboš Majeský, Tünde Farkas, Adrian Indreica, Lenka Šafářová and Miloslav Kitner
iedrzyński M, Z ielińska K, K iedrzyńska E, and J akubowska -G abara J. 2015. Regional climate and geology affecting habitat availability for a relict plant in a plain landscape: the case of Festuca amethystina L. in Poland. Plant Ecology and Diversity 8: 331–341. K itner M, L ebeda A, D oležalová I, M aras M, K řístková E, N evo E, P avlíček T, M eglic V, and B eharav A. 2008. AFLP analysis of Lactuca saligna germplasm collections from four European and three Middle Eastern countries. Israel Journal of Plant Science 56: 185–193. K olář F
B. O’Brien and D. Hennessy
herd, as well as allowing animals to display normal behaviour ( Legrand et al ., 2009 ). In Ireland, cows are usually outdoors from the middle of February to late November ( O’Donovan et al ., 2011 ). In the remaining 2–3 mo, when cows are not milking and are preparing to calve, they are kept in comfortable housing and fed silage indoors. Two Teagasc studies have investigated the welfare of cows in a typical Irish pasture-based production system and have shown that animals may be better able to express their natural behaviour when grazing outdoors, compared to when
Olga Krynytska, Taras Bondarenko, Jozef Capuliak and Marek Trenčiansky
The aim of the article is to find out if there is a difference between amount of litter-fall in hornbeam-oak-pine stands according to regeneration (naturally and artificially) and age of the stand (middle-aged, mature). We analysed the annual dynamics of litter-fall (litter) and its fractions (needles of Scots pine; leaves of common oak; leaves of associate species; twigs; bark; pine cones; acorns of common oak; seeds of other species; acorn cups, winged seeds; lichens, mosses) in middle-aged hornbeam-oak-pine stands which were regenerated naturally or artificially on the cutover sites following two-stage uniform shelterwood felling and clearcutting, as well as in a mature parent stand (control plot) in the Lviv Roztoche region. Two peaks of organic matter fall have been revealed on both the control plot and the experimental plots: the largest one in October and much lower in May. It was found that the annual mass of litter was 5.8 - 6.6 tons per hectare, the annual weight of litter in the middle-aged hornbeam-oak-pine stands was greater than in the mature stands. Annual dynamics of certain fractions of litter in the stands is preconditioned by the specificity of functioning of the relevant bodies of the trees.
Nataly N. Koshurnikova, Sergey V. Verkhovets, Olga A. Antamoshkina, Nataly V. Trofimova, Lyudmila.V. Zlenko, Andrey V. Zhuikov and Anastasia A. Garmash
R eferences Vedrova E.F., Koshurnikova N.N. 2007. Weight and composition of phytodetritus in the dark coniferous forests of Southern taiga. Forestry , 5, 3–11. Kapitsa E.A., Shorokhova E.V., Kuznetsov A.A. 2012. Carbon pool of the coarse woody debris in the primary forests of the North-West of the Russian Plain. Forestry , 5, 36–43. Klimchenko A.V., Verkhovets S.V. 2012. Carbon stocks in coarse woody debris in the middle taiga ecosystems located along the Yenisei River. Folia Forestalia Polonica , Series A – Forestry , 54, 2, 134–136. file