Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 11 items for :

  • middle ages x
  • Political Ideologies and Ideas x
Clear All
Open access

Přemysl Rosůlek

ordeals; they were also images of strangeness and a diatribe against Islam” ( Todorova 2009 , 90). The forthcoming era of Enlightenment founded on anticlericalism and a critique of religion further worsened the image of Islam in Europe. In that age, the decaying Ottoman Empire heavily contributed to the shared view in Europe of its despotic character, “the unreformability of the Muslim religion, afflicted with fanaticism and bigotry” ( Todorova 2009 , 76). Similarly, during the 19th and 20th centuries, the stereotyping image of “the mythical Orient” with the widely

Open access

Tomasz Kamusella

1980 to 40 per cent twenty years later. In the case of school-aged women in the age group of 15–24 years, the drop in illiteracy rate was steeper from 45 to 19.5 per cent between 1980 and 2000 ( Hammoud 2000 : 20). In the most developed and one of the very richest Persian Gulf states, Qatar, the overall illiteracy rate was 18.8 per cent in 2000, the gap between men and women being less than three percentual points at 16.9 and 19.6 per cent, respectively. The poorer, but with a longer tradition of stable educational policy, Middle Eastern state of Jordan limited

Open access

Samir Hajj

critical description of the short poetic works of Browning (Final Examination for the Palestine Diploma, July 1932). The second section revolved around the works of William Shakespeare; the third section was about drama, prose, and poetry of Milton and the influence of the Middle Ages on his work (Final Examination for the Palestine Diploma, July 1932). One of the graduates of the college explains the emphasis on the teaching of English literature as follows: I entered the Arab College in 1937, and I received, in 1939 the Matriculation certificate. In 1941, I

Open access

Sandra Kreisslová and Lukáš Novotný

a language is threatened can be determined using the Language Vitality and Endangerment (LVE) model created by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) ( Moseley 2010 ) ( Table 1 ). Table 1 Intergenerational language transmission Degree of endangerment Grade Speaker population Safe 5 The language is used by people of all ages, from children up. Unsafe 4 The language is used by some children in all domains; it is used by all children in limited domains. Definitively endangered

Open access

Gert Pickel and Cemal Öztürk

= Yes 2 = No Collective deprivation Compared to yourself government treats new immigrants better or worse 1 = Much better 5 = Much worse 1 = Much better (...) 0 = Much worse Education Highest level of education 1 = Less than lower secondary 7 = Higher tertiary education 1 = Higher tertiary education (...) 0 = Less than lower secondary Gender Gender 1 = Male 2 = Female 1 = Female 0 = Male Age Age of respondent, calculated Age in years 1 = Oldest respondent (...) 0 = Youngest respondent Source: ESS 2014. Own

Open access

Michaela Strapáčová and Vít Hloušek

heated debate in the Czech Republic. Islamic radicalism is for the Pan-European civilization a threat already since the early Middle Ages. For our culture is nevertheless absolutely incomprehensible aggressiveness of suicidal Islamic radicals who slaughter not only Christians all around the World in the name of Allah ( Lidinský 2015 ). The framework of security threat is reinforced by other rhetorical figures such as the decay of Western civilization. Migrants are – according to the leading politicians of the party – a kind of European “others”, whose “integration

Open access

Tatiana Podolinská

context in the places where this term is used as reconceptualized meta-term in connection with the pastoral concept of “New Roma”. In the remainder of my article, in order to distinguish wider exo- and endodiscourses, I will use “Gypsies” as the content-neutral umbrella term. So, my usage of the word Gypsies is fitting with the “Gypsy II”, as described by Matras (2004, 55–6). woman in her middle ages living in Plavecký Štvrtok, a small village in the Western part of Slovakia. At that time, I was conducting my participative observation research on the socially diverse

Open access

Tatiana Tökölyová

the defining aspects of cooperation and community building through constitutional ties is the fact that three-quarters of the New Zealand population is of European descent. This has particularly affected the migration wave in the mid-70s of the past century, when immigrants from Europe dominated the structure of migrants. Later, the migrants came from the Pacific Islands and Asia. Equally, children of mixed partnerships increased in number, and according to the results of the population census in 2001, 18% of children aged less than 15 years were included in more

Open access

Vladimír Naxera and Petr Krčál

our eyes, and therefore additional extremist organizations such as Boko Haram and others are scrambling toward the front together with the Islamic State. I would say that this is a religious war. Something similar happened in Europe in the Middle Ages when a clash between Catholics and Protestants took place. Now it is the confrontation of militant Islam with the rest of the world.” In terms of migrants, Zeman repeatedly mentions their illegal behavior: “The term refugee evokes various associations within us, but in reality these are people who have continually

Open access

Tereza Juhászová

historian Pierre Nora understood museums as one of the elementary tools of history, perceived by him as problematic reconstructions of the past ( Nora 1989 , 12). Museums, according to Nora, are lieux de mémoire (places of memory), “the ultimate embodiments of a memorial consciousness that has barely survived in a historical age that calls out for memory because it has abandoned it” ( Nora 1989 , 12). Cultural and social memory is in permanent evolution in developing individuals as well as among groups and, therefore, differs from history, which is static and universal