). Democracy and the Rule of Law in Classical Athens . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kern, F. (1939). Kingship and Law in the Middle Ages, Oxford: Blackwell. Lundmark. T. (2012). Charting the Divide between Common and Civil Law . Oxford: Oxford University Press. McSweeney T. J. (2015). Magna Carta, Civil Law, and Canon Law. In Magraw, D. B., Martinez, A., & Brownell, R. E. (Eds.), Magna Carta and the Rule of Law (pp. 281-310). Chicago, IL: American Bar Association. Ryan, M. (2015). Political Thought. In Johnston, D. (ed.), The Cambridge
Presidential pardon has always existed in criminal law and continues to constitute a very important competence of the head of state in many modern day countries. In the past, the clemency given by the sovereign (usually the king/queen or the emperor/empress) represented an act which showed his/her mercy upon their subjects. It was often used as a tool to show the arbitrary will of the sovereign that constituted the law, rather than the law itself. Therefore, the classical school of criminal law that appeared in the 18th century and emphasized the importance of the principle of legality, opposed harshly every kind of arbitrary deciding that excluded the law at the interest of the sovereign. This school is among the only interpretations of criminal law that engages for a complete abandonment of institutes such as pardon or amnesty. The revolutionary French Penal Code of 1791, which was strongly influenced by the classical school, excluded clemency for the proved wrongs that were severely punished. However, due to imperfections of the criminal justice system, amnesty (given by the parliament) and pardon or clemency (given by the head of the state), continue to exist and to be used in modern day criminal law. They are no longer considered acts of arbitrary decisions of the sovereign, instead they should represent important instruments of criminal law, used rarely and wisely with specifically designed goals that aim to bring justice rather than deny it. However, there are many cases when these institutes have been inappropriately used in a very arrogant way which shows that the ancient regime is not yet over for some countries in which the highest institutions continue to act as old and middle age despots. This article will analyze the legal reasoning of the institution of presidential pardon. It will try to establish why the classical school was so strictly opposed to this institute making use of the studies and interpretations found in the writings of Cesare Beccaria. It will explain the philosophy of modern day institutions of amnesty and pardon and the way in which they are regulated in the legal theory and practice. The article will explain the recent developments in Macedonia in regard to the use of presidential pardon. The methods to be used consist of desk research, historical and comparative methods and analysis of legal texts, laws and judicial decisions.
Press. 10. Helmholz, R. H. (2008). Western canon law. In Witte, J & Alexander, F. S. (eds.), Law and Christianity: An Introduction (pp. 71-88). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 11. Ibbetson, D. (1992). From Property to Contract: The Transformation of Sale in the Middle Ages, The Journal of Legal History , 13, 1-22. 12. Kelly, J. M. (1992). A Short History of Western Legal Theory . Oxford: Oxford University Press. 13. Landau, P. (2008). Gratian and the Decretum Gratiani. In Hartmann, W & Pennington, K. The History of Medieval Canon
References - Anderson, B., (2006) Imagined Communities. London: Verso. - Bacon, F., (1965) Francis Bacon: A Selection of His Works, ed. Sydney Warhaft. Toronto: Macmillan. - Bellah, R. N., (1964) 'Religious Evolution' in American Sociological Review 29.3. - Bengston, J., (2015) Explorations in Post-Secular Metaphysics. London: Palgrave-Macmillan. - Cleveland, W.L.M. (2009) A History of the Modern Middle East Westview Press, 4th ed.. - Cohen, R., (1995) 'A Balkan
Ivana Shumanovska-Spasovska and Konstantin Bitrakov
– ri Avgust – Stip. Skarik, S. (2006). Ustavno pravo . Skopje: Matica Makedonska OTHER PRINT SOURCES: Shumanovska – Spasovska, I. (2011). Drzavnata uprava vo sistemot na podelba na vlasta (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Iustinianus Primus Faculty of Law, Skopje. ELECTRONIC SOURCES (WEB PUBLICATIONS): Newspaper Article Ibeji, M. (2011, February 17). King John and the Magna Carta. BBC . Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/middle_ages/magna_01.shtml Online Encyclopedia Magna Carta (n.d.) In History Online
. Pavlowitch, Stevan K. 1999. A History of the Balkans, 1904-1945. London, New York: Longman. Pinson, Mark. 1994. The Muslims of Bosnia-Herzegovina: Their Historic Development from the Middle Ages to the Dissolution of Yugoslavia. Cambridge MA: Harvard UP. Renner, Heinrich. 1896. Durch Bosnien und die Hercegovina kreuz und quer: Wanderungen. Berlin: Reimer. Ress, Imre. 2006. “Versuch einer Nationenbildung um die Jahrhundertwende. Benjámin Kállays Konzeption der bosnischen Nation.“ In Nation und Nationenbildung in Österreich
Noël Barengo, Dana Misiņa, Lauma Zariņa, Jānis Kloviņš, Dita Ozola, Andra Dērveniece, Linda Tarāsova and Valdis Pīrāgs
., Linström, J., Saarikoski, L., Sundvall, J., Eriksson, J. G., Tuomilehto, J. (2005). Cross-sectional evaluation of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score: A tool to identify undetected type diabetes, abnormal glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Vasc. Dis. Res. , 2 , 67-72. Saaristo, T., Barengo, N. C., Korpi-Hyövälti, E., Oksa, H., Puolijoki, H., Saltevo, J. T., Vanhala, M., Sundvall, J., Saarikoski, L., Peltonen, M., Tuomilehto, J. (2008). High prevalence of obesity, central obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance in the middle-aged
Kaspars Liepiņš, Jānis Liepiņš and Roberts Matisons
In Latvia, common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) can form ecologically stable monoculture stands in localities with optimum growing conditions, but they are mainly found in mixed forests throughout the country on sites with fresh, fertile, sufficiently moist, yet well-drained soils. Over the last two decades, ash decline has become a serious problem for the whole of Europe; the causal agent for it is also present in Latvia. The aim of the given study was to investigate the growth patterns of ash in different populations at the age of maturity (over 80 years), tracing back their course of growth, and identify the spatial distribution of ash to identify localities with appreciable concentration of ash-dominated stands. The study revealed high variation in the juvenile growth of ash, and confirmed that the height and diameter growth for common ash peaks at an early age. Analysis of the spatial distribution of ash indicated considerable expansion of common ash over the country during the second half of the 20th century, to some extent complementing natural overgrowing of abandoned lands by forest. Apart from the Zemgale Plain in the middle of Latvia, the highest concentration of ash stands is in upland areas with highly varying land relief conditions.
Ramona Valante, Inese Blimhena, Evija Miglāne, Andrejs Millers, Artūrs Balodis and Elīna Pūcīte
, B., Wijeratne, T., Phan, T. G., Chong, W., Chandra, R. V., Donnan, G. A., Davis, S. M. (2015). Endovascular therapy for ischemic stroke with perfusion-imaging selection. New Engl. J. Med., 372, 1009-1018. DeLong, W. B. (1973), Anatomy of the Middle Cerebral Artery: The Temporal Branches. Stroke, 4, 412-418. Ferro, J. M. (2003). Cardioembolic stroke: an update. Lancet Neurol., 2 (3), p. 177-188. Mayank, G., Demchuk, A. M., Menon, B. K., Eesa, M.,. Rempel, J. L., Thornton, J., Dowlatshahi, D., Frei, D. F., Kamal, N. R
Anatolijs Požarskis and Juris Ērenpreiss
., Derby, C. A., Johannes, C. B., Araujo, A. B., Coviello, A. D., Bremner, W. J., McKinlay, J. B. (2002). Age trends on the level of serum testosterone and other hormones in middle-aged men: Longitudinal result from Massachusetts male aging study. J. Clin. Endocrinol Metabol. , 87 (2), 589-598. Fox, C. S., Hwang, S. J., Massaro, J. M., Lieb, K., Vasan, R. S., O'Donnell, C. J., Hoffmann, U. (2009) Relation of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue to coronary and abdominal aortic calcium (from the Framingham Heart Study). Amer. J. Cardiol