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J. Konieczny, K. Labisz, K. Głowik-Łazarczyk, J. Ćwiek and Ł. Wierzbicki

Abstract

In Poland, researchers have a very strong interest in archaeometallurgy, which, as presented in classical works, focuses on dating artefacts from the prehistoric and early medieval periods in the form of cast iron and copper castings. This study, extending the current knowledge, presents the results of a microstructure investigation into the findings from the Modern era dating back to the late Middle Ages. The investigated material was an object in the form of a heavy solid copper block weighing several kilograms that was excavated by a team of Polish archaeologists working under the direction of Ms Iwona Młodkowska-Przepiórowska during works on the marketplace in the city of Czestochowa during the summer of 2009. Pre-dating of the material indicates the period of the seventeenth century AD. The solid copper block was delivered in the form of a part shaped like a bell, named later in this work as a “kettlebell”. To determine the microstructure, the structural components, chemical composition, and homogeneity, as well as additives and impurities, investigations were carried out using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy including analysis of the chemical composition performed in micro-areas, and qualitative X-ray phase analysis in order to investigate the phase composition. Interpretation of the analytical results of the material’s microstructure will also help modify and/or develop new methodological assumptions to investigate further archaeometallurgical exhibits, throwing new light on and expanding the area of knowledge of the use and processing of seventeenth-century metallic materials.

Open access

Atsushi Ito

. [12] https://www.brewmp.com/. [13] http://www.adobe.com/support/documentation/en/flashlite/. [14] H. Sudo, “Determinants of exercise adherence of middle-aged women in the gym,” Sports Science Research , vol. 5, pp. 96-107, 2008, (in Japanese). [15] R. K. Dishman, Exercise Adherence: Its Impact on Public Health.Human Kinetics . SChampaign, IL, 1988. [16] J. Maeda, The Laws of Simplicity . MIT Press, 2006.

Open access

M. Nadolski

). Analysis of Bell Material from the Middle Ages to the Recent Times. Endeavour. 20(1), 22-27. [5] Strafford, K.N., Newell, R., Audy, K., Audy, J. (1996). The Metallurgy of Bells. In Conference Proceeding, Materials Research. 10th of July 1996 (vol. 1, pp. 109-112). Australia: The Institute of Metals and Materials, Australasia, Ltd. [6] Meréchal, K. (1974). Bell casting technology. Foundry Review (Przegląd Odlewnictwa). (8-9), 269-273 (in Polish). [7] Perrin, R., Charnley, T. & Swallowe, G.M. (1995). On the Tuning of Church

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A. Garbacz-Klempka, P. Makarowicz and T. Tokarski

] Jaeger, M., Czebreszuk, J., Müller, J. & Kneisel, J. (2015). Metal finds, J. Czebreszuk, J. Müller, M. Jaeger, J. Kneisel (Eds.) Bruszczewo IV. Natural resources and economic activities of the Bronze Age people. Poznań, 227-242. [7] Makarowicz, P. & Garbacz-Klempka, A. (2014). Metallurgist's settlement in Szczepidło on the middle Warta. Some remarks on bronze objects industry in the 2nd millennium BC. Fontes Archaeologici Posnanienses. 50(2), 261-283. (in Polish). [8] Rzadkosz, S., Kranc, M., Garbacz-Klempka, A., Kozana, J. & Piękoś, M

Open access

A. Garbacz-Klempka, Ł. Kowalski, J. Gackowski and M. Perek-Nowak

. Vorgeschichtliche Forschungen, vol. 19. Berlin-New York: De Gruyter. (in German). [17] Michalski, J. (1982). Bronze casting workshop in Zawada, Tarnobrzeg province. In Z. Bukowski (Ed.), The diary of the Museum of Copper, vol. 1, (pp. 199-207). Legnica: TPN. (in Polish). [18] Bukowski, Z. et al. (1979). Foreign cultures and cultural elements. In J. Dąbrowski & Z. Rajewski (Eds.). Prehistory of Polish land, vol. 4: From the Middle Bronze Age do the La Tène period , (pp. 190-209). Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków-Gdańsk: Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich. (in Polish

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Krzysztof Cichocki, Jacek Domski, Jacek Katzer and Mariusz Ruchwa

D. FAJTO. Load-CMOD Characteristics of Fibre Reinforced Cementitious Composites Based on Waste Ceramic Aggregate. Rocznik Ochrona Srodowiska - Annual Set The Environment Protection . Koszalin (Poland): Middle Pomeranian Scientific Society of The Environment Protection, 2012, vol. 14, pp. 69–80 (11 p). ISSN 1506-218X. [5] HENDRIKS, C.F. and G.M.T. JANSSEN. Use of recycled materials in construction. Materials and Structures . 2003, vol. 36, pp. 604–608 (5 p). ISBN 1359-5997. [6] DE BRITO, J., A.S. PEREIRA and J.R. CORREIA. Mechanical behaviour of non

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A. Garbacz-Klempka, M. Wardas-Lasoń, J. Kozana, M. Piękoś and Z. Kwak

-Klempka, A. (2016). Historical Metallurgical Activities and Environment Pollution at the Substratum Level of the Main Market Square in Krakow, Geochronometria 43, 59-73. DOI 10.1515/geochr-2015-0032 [11] Garbacz-Klempka, A. & Rzadkosz, S. (2014). Metallurgy in middle ages : raw materials, tools and facilities in source materials and metallographic research, In: Argenti fodina 2014 : 10.-12. septembra 2014, Banská Štiavnica: zborník prednášok. - Banská Štiavnica, (pp. 99-107). [12] Garbacz-Klempka, A., Wardas-Lasoń, M. & Rzadkosz, S. (2012

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A. Garbacz-Klempka, Ł. Kowalski, J. Kozana, J. Gackowski, M. Perek-Nowak, G. Szczepańska and M. Piękoś

Archaeology in the Low Countries . 3(1/2), 47-63. [10] Gackowski, J. (2015). Relics of defensive settlement of the Lusatian culture population at Czarnowo (formerly Kamieniec), Toruń county, in the light of research in 2012 (site 46/AZP 38-39/1). In A. Janowski, K. Kowalski, B. Rogalski & S. Słowiński (Eds.), Acta Archaeologica Pomoranica. 5, (67-78). Szczecin: SNAP. (in Polish). [11] Makarowicz, P. & Garbacz-Klempka, A. (2014). Metallurgist's settlement in Szczepidło on the middle Warta. Some remarks on bronze objects industry in the 2 nd millennium BC

Open access

Yousri M. A. Welaya, M. Mosleh and Nader R. Ammar

society. Corbett, J.J., Winebrake, J.J., Green, E.H., Kasibhatla, P., Eyring, V. and Lauer, A., 2007. Mortality from ship emissions: A global assessment. Environmental Science and Technology, 41(24), pp.8512-8518. EG&G Technical Services, 2004. Fuel cell handbook. 7rd ed. West Virginia: National Technical Information Service, U.S.Department of Commerce, pp.10-15. Farr, J., 2011. LNG as a Fuel for Marine Applications. Lloyd’s Register. Middle East and Africa Advisory Technical Committee. Figari, M., D