GAUDENZI, Augusto: Statuti delle Società del Popolo di Bologna, Roma 1889 GIES, Frances & Joseph: Cathedral, Forge and Waterwheel - Technology and Invention in the Middle Ages, HarperPerennial - New York 1995 GILLINGHAM, John: An Age of Expansion, c. 1020-1204, in: KEEN pages 59-88 HAVERKAMP, Alfred: Medieval Germany 1056-1273, second edition (translated by Helga Braun and Richard Mortimer), Oxford University Press - Oxford 1992 HOUSLEY, Norman: European Warfare, c. 1200-1320, in: KEEN pages 113
The designation Harnischrödel (rolls of armour) lumps together different kinds of urban inventories. They list the names of citizens and inhabitants together with the armour they owned, were compelled to acquire within their civic obligations, or were obliged to lend to able-bodied men. This contribution systematically introduces Harnischrödel of the 14th and 15th c. as important sources for the history of urban martial culture. On the basis of lists preserved in the archives of Swiss towns, it concentrates on information pertaining to the type and quality of an average urban soldier’s gear. Although the results of this analysis are only preliminary – at this point, it is not possible to produce methodologically sound statistics –, the value of the lists as sources is readily evident, as only a smattering of the once massive quantity of actual objects has survived down to the present time.
Jack Gassmann, Jürg Gassmann and Dominique Le Coultre
Treatise of 1570, by Joachim Meyer (London: Greenhill/New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006). Gassmann, Jürg, ‘Honour and Fighting: Social Advancement in the Early Modern Age’, Acta Periodica Duellatorum 3/1 (2015), 139-181. Jaquet, Daniel, Combattre En Armure à La Fin Du Moyen Âge et Au Début de La Renaissance d’après Les Livres de Combat (unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Geneva, 2013). Jaquet, Daniel, ‘Fighting in the Fightschools late XV th , early XVI th century’, Acta Periodica Duellatorum 1 (2013), 47-66. Jaquet, Daniel and
exploitation of equids in the middle ages on the Clos d’Ugnac archaeological site (Pennautier, Aude, France)’, in: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports , Vol. 15 (2017), 179–193 Bouet, Pierre, ‘Les chevaux de la tapisserie de Bayeux’, in: In Situ: Revue des patrimoines , Vol. 27 (2015), < DOI: 10.4000/insitu.11967 >, 1-24 Bourgain, Pascale, ‘Pratique de l’équitation au Moyen Âge d’après les textes littéraires’, in: In Situ: Revue des patrimoines , Vol. 18 (2012), < DOI: 10.4000/insitu.9721 >, 1-13 Branderup, Bent, Academic Art of Riding (Richmond
Daniel Jaquet, Claus Frederik Sørensen and Fabrice Cognot
’, Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences (Proc.R.Soc.B) , 279 (2012), 640–44. Barber, Malcolm and Barker, Juliet, Tournaments: jousts, chivalry and pageants in the Middle Ages (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1989). Bauer, Matthias Johannes, ed., Langes Schwert und Schweinespiess: Die anonyme Fechthandschrift aus den verschütteten Beständen des Historischen Archivs der Stadt Köln (Graz: Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 2009). Boffa, Sergio, Les Manuels de Combat (Fechtbücher’ et Ringbücher), Typologie des sources du Moyen Âge occidental, fasc
Jan H. Orkisz
). Oakeshott, Ewart, European Weapons and Armour: From the Renaissance to the Industrial Revolution (Oxford: Boydell Press, 2012). Petersen, Jan G.T. De Norske Vikingesverd, (Kristiania: Dybwad i Komm., 1919). Short, William R., Viking Age Arms and Armor: Viking Shields, <http://www.hurstwic.com/history/articles/manufacturing/text/viking_shields.htm>, accessed 3 March 2016. Short, William R., Viking Age Arms and Armor: Viking Spear, <http://www.hurstwic.com/history/articles/manufacturing/text/viking_spear.htm >, accessed 3
sozialen Aufstiegs und Statuserhalts’, in Schultz, Aufstieg , pp. 269–290 Brown, Andrew, ‘Urban Jousts in the Later Middle Ages: The White Bear of Bruges’, Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire, 78/2 (2000), 315–330 Brown, Elizabeth A. R., ‘The Tyranny of a Construct: Feudalism and Historians of Mediaeval Europe’, American Historical Review , 79/4 (October 1974), 1063–1088 Bührer, Peter, Die auswärtige Politik deralten Stadtrepublik St. Gallen 1291–1798 (St. Gallen: Zollikofer, 1954) Carlen, Louis, ‘Juristen und Jurisprudenz im Wallis zur
References Amberger, Christoph J. (2007): „Killing arts or upper-class leisure activity?: Aspects of European combatives in image and literature”. In: Molloy, Barry (ed.) The Cutting Edge: Studies in Ancient and Medieval Combat. Stroud: Tempus. pp 177-187. Anglo, Sydney (2000): The Martial Arts of Renaissance Europe. New Haven: Yale University Press. Barber, Richard; Barker, Juliet (1989): Tournaments: jousts, chivalry and pageants in the Middle Ages. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press. Barbey
Evolution in Medieval Europe, Master of Arts Thesis, State University of California Fresno, 2015 Brandaris-Fontes, Claudia, Jennifer A. Leonard, José Luis Vega-Pla, Niclas Backström, Gabriella Lindgren, Sebastian Lippold, Ciro Rico, ‘Y-Chromosome Analysis in Retuertas Horses’, in: PLOS One, 8/5 (May 2013), e64985 Brown, Andrew, ‘Urban Jousts in the Later Middle Ages: The White Bear of Bruges’, in: Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire, 78/2 (2000), 315-330 Bumke, Joachim, Höfische Kultur: Literatur und Gesellschaft im
Alessandro Battistini and Niki Corradetti
Since ancient times, the master-at-arms profession has always been considered essential for the education of the nobility and the common citizenship, especially in the Middle Ages. Yet, we know nothing about the real standard of living of these characters. The recent discovery of documents, which report the sums earned by fencing masters to teach combat disciplines, has brought us the possibility to estimate how highly this profession was regarded, and what its actual economic value was in the Italian late Middle Ages. They also give us also a material view into the modes of operation of a sala d’arme in those times.
Using different comparative methods based on the quoted currencies, primary goods and the cost of living, it was possible to analyze prices and duration of various military teachings offered by the fencing Masters in the late Middle Ages and equivalent viable activities of the time. We use three ways to calculate equivalent income levels in euros: from the silver content of the coins (bolognini, equivalent to the soldo); from purchasing power in relation to bread prices; and from equivalent wages. As a result we were able to define more accurately both the accessibility of these services for citizens and the relative value to other professions.
This cursory research study also aims to estimate approximately the current equivalent wages of a fencing master operating in the Italian peninsula in the 15th and early 16th century, confirming that this job was comparable to a modern, highly specialized, profession.