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Open access

Gabrijela Kragujević

Summary

Under the influence of the French bourgeois revolution and the free-minded, educated patriots, many European nations, revolted by the state and position of their peoples, awoke. Strongly influenced by democratism, liberalism and national romanticism, the first national states were created in Europe (Germany, France, and Italy), while in nationally deprived entities there were national leaders of the “revolutionary” movements striving towards national emancipation from the foreign authorities. Under the given social and historical circumstances in the Czech Republic, a gymnastic society was founded with the basic task of a camouflaged struggle for national revival and emancipation. It required the physical power, health, and morale of people, with the contribution of physical exercise with its means and methods. This opinion was the guiding principle for Miroslav Tyrš, MD, and his close associates who established, developed and expanded the Sokol gymnastic system, transformed from the higher national importance to the Slavic Sokol movement and creation of a universal humanistic system of physical exercise. The Sokol gymnastic system was based on democratic liberal ideological foundations, consisting of unique, consistent and coherent elements: organizations, ideologies, systems of physical exercises, socio-educational methods, Sokol dedication, members and Sokol press. The Sokol educational methodology was one of the most important elements of their work, and it could be carried out only in symbiosis and synergy with the Sokol ideology, the system of physical exercises, members and printed material.

The Sokol gymnastic system was built on a scientific basis and systematics with its source in philosophical views of Tyrš and his immediate personal experience.

Open access

Carmen-Mihaela Niculescu

Abstract

The human being started as a self-educated person, this way managing to improve his living. For his descendants to avoid failures, he started to share his ancestors’ experience. When some people’s knowledge acquirement became big, they were called the sages, and among of them became eventually teachers, that took the role of transmitting the useful information related to life environmental conditions they lived. In time, their needs became more and more complex and their knowledge deeper. In the act of teaching itself, teachers create a shortcut between necessity and solving it, going beyond failures. Obviously, the present society is technologized, where the human being uses technology but he also searches for himself. This quest should be naturally performed with the help of the educator, of the experienced student, so that he could shape the young man and make him feel good with himself and find his place within society. The current education system describes to younger people nothing more than the evolution of science, technique and art, starting with the first trials till our days. What is really mandatory for us is to find a way where the educational system could become again a necessity for a person and not a way to keep very many people busy, while they can be intellectually and psycho-emotionally shaped.

Open access

Федор Собянин, Елена Карабутова and Игорь Никулин

Summary

Based on the analysis of literature, comparison, induction, deduction was conducted to study the essence of the notion “physical culture”. It is shown that in some countries the notion “physical culture” is an umbrella for the study of physical perfection of man, but in many countries generic are other concepts. Even those authors who study the theory and methodology of physical culture, not always involved in the definition of “physical culture”. Evaluation study of the concepts as species for the theory of common culture and generic for the theory of physical culture has identified the need to develop the basic concepts of “physical culture”. The diversity of the content of the physical activities required the development of special formulas for the definition of “physical culture”. The study formulated and basic concept of “physical culture”, suitable for professional training, as well as the definition of the concept for level of students in secondary schools and higher – level researchers in the field of theory and methodology of physical perfection.

Open access

Božo Bokan and Miloš Marković

Summary

In a theoretical essay authors have conducted an analysis of the papers by one of the most significant theoreticians and practitioners of methodology of physical education in Serbia, full-time professor Milivoje Matić, PhD. Four publications by this author found themselves to be the focus of the analysis: “Physical Education Class” (1978), “Axiological and Methodological Bases of Revalorization of Physical Movement-Exercise” (1982), “Physical Education - Introduction to Expert and Theoretical Improvement” (1990) and “General Theory of Physical Culture” (2005). With the application of theoretical analysis and content analysis of said books, and relying on theoretical conceptions of leading theoreticians and philosophers, authors have interpreted the potential contribution of Milivoje Matić to the theory and practice of physical education, as well as to the general theory of physical culture. “Matić's Methodics of Morals”, modelled on Kant's deontological ethics theory can be considered an original contribution to the theory and practice of physical education. In the area of general theory of physical culture Milivoje Matić has elevated the theory of physical culture to the level of philosophical contemplation by introducing elements of philosophical thinking into theoretical discussions, which is his original contribution to the development of the general theory of physical culture.

Open access

B. Serrien, R. Clijsen, S. Anders, M. Goossens and J-P. Baeyens

Abstract

In sports biomechanics and motor control, a thorough study of coordination variability is important to understanding how the human movement system is organized. From a more applied sport science perspective, knowledge about performance variability is essential regarding the evaluation of true sport specific effects of any intervention. While there are many reports of intervention studies in team-handball, no description of the amount of normal variability is available. This study investigated variability of two important throwing techniques in team-handball within elite junior players over a 4-month period during a competitive season. To evaluate ball speed variability, the intra-individual coefficient of variation was calculated. The 95th percentile of ball speed variability over all players was 7%, which can be used as an effect size estimate in future research. For coordination variability, a qualitative description based on the output of neural networks was used. All participants presented multiple coordination patterns, representing multi-stability on a month-to-month timescale and switched between stable states without the manipulation of any control variable. Some limitations in the methodology and applications of neural networks in the present study and in biomechanics and motor control in general are highlighted. When more researchers adopt these methodologies, a more coherent framework for their application can emerge.

Open access

Krzysztof Piech, Jakub Piech and Juris Grants

Abstract

The topic of Nordic walking shows the main points of scientific interest concerning form of physical exercise. Existing research mainly focuses on presenting it as beneficial for the elderly. The authors of the topic are presenting the advantages of pole walking for distinctive age groups. There are a number of publications concerning elderly women specifically. Nordic walking is also an object of interest in biomechanical studies. There is an apparent shortage of publications on the utility of this kind of physical activity for children and the young. This seems to be a frequent shortcoming of the research methodology, as it is difficult to deduce whether the study is based on the correct Nordic walking technique or rather on walking with poles as a bracing device. At the same time there is no data concerning Nordic walking as a competitive sport which has been developing dynamically.

Open access

Stefan Ilić

Summary

Truth, problems, research

In his search for the truth, every history researcher often encounters the difficulties of methodological nature.

A very complex path, which is, in case of history researchers, more difficult and complicated, due to a number of obstacles, leads to a discovery of truth.

However, what exactly is the truth and how much do we need it nowadays, who wants it and is there a desire to discover the truth? These questions are not easy to answer.

What are we faced with and what are the most common problems in the research of the history of physical culture? What makes us make omissions, errors and mistakes?

  1. Hasting and hurrying to complete the papers, when we, often faced with short deadlines, fail to meet all methodological requirements.

  2. Using the information from the papers by other authors is taken for granted, without adequate verification, assuming their reliability, and if the information is inaccurate, it results in multiplying inaccurate information which thus becomes an inaccurate secondary source to the next researcher.

  3. In our research we are sometimes unable to distance ourselves from our nation, religion and politics and we therefore tend to overestimate the achievements by our own people.

  4. We do not always pay enough attention to or we neglect or do not consider the economic, political, historical, cultural and other conditions under which an event occurred as well as their interrelations and their impact on the studied issue.

  5. In research we often exclude comparative studies on the development and achievements of European countries and Serbia in all aspects of political, economic and cultural life.

  6. Professional and scientific papers’ review is easily accepted and taken for granted since, due to the authors’ deadlines, we are often under pressure and forced to assess the suggested work without thorough and adequate consideration.

For the aforesaid reasons, we therefore advocate a more cautious and more serious approach to the research of the past in order to avoid mistakes and inaccuracies.

Open access

Mārtiņš Lauva and Uldis Grāvītis

References 1. Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology Sage. 2. Saeima. (2002). Law of the Republic of Latvia: “Sports Law” Riga. Latvijas Vēstnesis. [The official Gazette of the Government of Latvia] 3. Cabinet of Ministers (2003). Cabinet Regulations No. 422: “By-law of the Latvian National Sports Council”. Riga. Latvijas Vēstnesis. [The official Gazette of the Government of Latvia] 4. Saeima (2014). Law of the Republic of Latvia “On the State Budget for 2015” Riga. Latvijas Vēstnesis. [The official