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Zhenzhou Zhu, Qingyan Guan, Ying Guo, Jingren He, Gang Liu, Shuyi Li, Francisco J. Barba and Michel Y. Jaffrin

**The authors appreciate the International Cooperation Research Funding granted by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2014DFG32310) and the support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31371727). REFERENCES Ahmed M., Akter M.S., and Eun J.-B., 2011. Optimization conditions for anthocyanin and phenolic content extraction form purple sweet potato using response surface methodology. Int. J. Food Sci Nutr., 62(1), 91-96. Barba F.J., Brianceau S., Turk M., Boussetta N., and Vorobiev E., 2015a. Effect of alternative

Open access

M. Iqbal, I. Ahmad, S.M. Hussain, R.A. Khera, T.H. Bokhari and M.A. Shehzad

Abstract

Seed pre-sowing magnetic field treatment was reported to induce biochemical and physiological changes. In the present study, response surface methodology was used for deduction of optimal magnetic field doses. Improved growth and yield responses in the pea cultivar were achieved using a rotatable central composite design and multivariate data analysis. The growth parameters such as root and shoot fresh masses and lengths as well as yield were enhanced at a certain magnetic field level. The chlorophyll contents were also enhanced significantly vs. the control. The low magnetic field strength for longer duration of exposure/ high strength for shorter exposure were found to be optimal points for maximum responses in root fresh mass, chlorophyll ‘a’ contents, and green pod yield/plant, respectively and a similar trend was observed for other measured parameters. The results indicate that the magnetic field pre-sowing seed treatment can be used practically to enhance the growth and yield in pea cultivar and response surface methodology was found an efficient experimental tool for optimization of the treatment level to obtain maximum response of interest.

Open access

Leonardo Montagnani, Thomas Grünwald, Andrew Kowalski, Ivan Mammarella, Lutz Merbold, Stefan Metzger, Pavel Sedlák and Lukas Siebicke

.J., Riggs J.S., Hosmand K.P., and Yang B., 2012. The fundamental equation of eddy covariance and its application in flux measurements. Agric. Forest Meteorol., 152, 135-148, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2011.09.014. Haverd V., Cuntz M., Leuning R., and Keith H., 2007. Air and biomass heat storage fluxes in a forest canopy: Calculation within a soil vegetation atmosphere transfer model. Agric. Forest Meteorol., 147, 125-139, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet. 2007.07.006. Heinesch B., Yernaux M., and Aubinet M., 2007. Some methodological questions concerning advection

Open access

Elena Pavlovna Kiseleva, Konstantin Igorevich Mikhailopulo, Alena Ivanovna Ladutska and Galina Ivanovna Novik

Abstract

Background: Nonpathogenic Bacillus strains are used in biotechnology, and pathogenic Bacillus strains are cause of food borne disease. It explains the relevance of the methods of detection and quantification of whole cell and cell components of these bacteria. Aims: Development of methodological approach for investigation of dynamics of specific concentration of cell wall antigens per cell of bacilli without solubilization of cell wall during sample preparation; using of the approach with 6 strains of bacilli as an example. Method: ELISA. Results: Methodological approach for investigation of dynamics of specific concentration of bacilli cell wall antigens has been developed. The distinctive features of the approach are rabbit polyclonal antibodies to genera-specific antigens of bacilli as key reagent and lack of need for solubilization of cell wall during sample preparation. It was shown using 6 strains of Bacilli as an example that specific concentration of cell wall antigens per cell vary according to bacillus strain, stage of culture growth and media composition. The data will find an application in biotechnology of clinical diagnostics and test-systems for food control including detection of whole bacillus cells.

Open access

Alina Syp, Antoni Faber and Małgorzata Kozak

from arable soils in Europe. Biogeosciences, 5, 73-94. Lesschen J.P., Velthof G.L., de Vries W., and Kros J., 2011. Differentiation of nitrous oxide emission factors for agricultural soils. Environ. Pollution, 159, 3215-3222. Li C., Zhuang Y., Cao M., Crill P., Dai Z., Frolking S., Moore III B., Salas W., Song W., and Wang X., 2001. Comparing a process-based agro-ecosystem model to the IPCC methodology for developing a national inventory of N2O emissions from arable lands in China. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 60, 159

Open access

Alireza Ghodsvali, Vahid Farzaneh, Hamid Bakhshabadi, Zahra Zare, Zahra Karami, Mohsen Mokhtarian and Isabel. S. Carvalho

References Agu R.C. and Palmer G.H., 2003. Pattern of nitrogen distribution in barley grains grown in the field. J. I. Brewing., 109(2), 110-113. Arab Amerian F., 2011. Inspecting the Effect of Steeping and Germination Periods on the amount of Enzyme activity in Barley Seed (in Persian). Islamic Azad University of Sabzevar, Sabzevar, Iran. Baş D. and Boyacı İ.H., 2007. Modeling and optimization I: Usability of response surface methodology. J. Food. Eng., 78(3), 836-845. Briggs D.E., 1998. Malt

Open access

Hamid Tavakolipour and Mohsen Mokhtarian

. Optimisation of pumpkin mass transfer kinetic during osmotic dehydration using artificial neural network and response surface methodology modelling. Quality Assur. Safety Crops Food., 6(2), 201-214. Moreira R., Chenlo F., and Torres M.D., 2009. Simplified algorithm for the prediction of water sorption isotherms of fruits, vegetables and legumes based upon chemical composition. J. Food Eng., 94, 334-343. Mrad N.D., Bonazzi C., Courtois F., Kechaou N., and Mihoubi N.B., 2013. Moisture desorption isotherms and glass transition temperatures of osmo-dehydrated apple

Open access

Simone Sabbatini, Ivan Mammarella, Nicola Arriga, Gerardo Fratini, Alexander Graf, Lukas Hörtnagl, Andreas Ibrom, Bernard Longdoz, Matthias Mauder, Lutz Merbold, Stefan Metzger, Leonardo Montagnani, Andrea Pitacco, Corinna Rebmann, Pavel Sedlák, Ladislav Šigut, Domenico Vitale and Dario Papale

REFERENCES Aubinet M., Grelle A., Ibrom A., et al., 2000. Estimates of the annual net carbon and water exchange of forests: the EUROFLUX methodology. Adv Ecol Res., 30, 113-175. Aubinet M., Vesala T., and Papale D., 2012. Eddy covariance, a practical guide to measurement and data analysis, Springer. Baldocchi D.D., Hincks B.B., and Meyers T.P., 1988. Measuring biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of biologically related gases with micrometeorological methods. Ecology, 69(5), 1331-1340. Baldocchi D.D., 2003. Assessing the eddy covariance

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Daniela Franz, Manuel Acosta, Núria Altimir, Nicola Arriga, Dominique Arrouays, Marc Aubinet, Mika Aurela, Edward Ayres, Ana López-Ballesteros, Mireille Barbaste, Daniel Berveiller, Sébastien Biraud, Hakima Boukir, Timothy Brown, Christian Brümmer, Nina Buchmann, George Burba, Arnaud Carrara, Allessandro Cescatti, Eric Ceschia, Robert Clement, Edoardo Cremonese, Patrick Crill, Eva Darenova, Sigrid Dengel, Petra D’Odorico, Gianluca Filippa, Stefan Fleck, Gerardo Fratini, Roland Fuß, Bert Gielen, Sébastien Gogo, John Grace, Alexander Graf, Achim Grelle, Patrick Gross, Thomas Grünwald, Sami Haapanala, Markus Hehn, Bernard Heinesch, Jouni Heiskanen, Mathias Herbst, Christine Herschlein, Lukas Hörtnagl, Koen Hufkens, Andreas Ibrom, Claudy Jolivet, Lilian Joly, Michael Jones, Ralf Kiese, Leif Klemedtsson, Natascha Kljun, Katja Klumpp, Pasi Kolari, Olaf Kolle, Andrew Kowalski, Werner Kutsch, Tuomas Laurila, Anne de Ligne, Sune Linder, Anders Lindroth, Annalea Lohila, Bernhard Longdoz, Ivan Mammarella, Tanguy Manise, Sara Maraňón Jiménez, Giorgio Matteucci, Matthias Mauder, Philip Meier, Lutz Merbold, Simone Mereu, Stefan Metzger, Mirco Migliavacca, Meelis Mölder, Leonardo Montagnani, Christine Moureaux, David Nelson, Eiko Nemitz, Giacomo Nicolini, Mats B. Nilsson, Maarten Op de Beeck, Bruce Osborne, Mikaell Ottosson Löfvenius, Marian Pavelka, Matthias Peichl, Olli Peltola, Mari Pihlatie, Andrea Pitacco, Radek Pokorný, Jukka Pumpanen, Céline Ratié, Corinna Rebmann, Marilyn Roland, Simone Sabbatini, Nicolas P.A. Saby, Matthew Saunders, Hans Peter Schmid, Marion Schrumpf, Pavel Sedlák, Penelope Serrano Ortiz, Lukas Siebicke, Ladislav Šigut, Hanna Silvennoinen, Guillaume Simioni, Ute Skiba, Oliver Sonnentag, Kamel Soudani, Patrice Soulé, Rainer Steinbrecher, Tiphaine Tallec, Anne Thimonier, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Patrik Vestin, Gaëlle Vincent, Caroline Vincke, Domenico Vitale, Peter Waldner, Per Weslien, Lisa Wingate, Georg Wohlfahrt, Mark Zahniser and Timo Vesala

.1038/ngeo905. Arrouays D., Saby N.P.A., Boukir H., et al., 2018. Soil sampling and preparation for monitoring soil carbon. Int. Agrophys., 32, 633-643. Aubinet M., Grelle A., Ibrom A., et al., 2000. Estimates of the annual net carbon and water exchange of European forests: The EUROFLUX Methodology. Advances. Ecol. Res., 30, 113-175. Aubinet M., Moureaux C., Bodson B., Dufranne D., Heinesch B., Suleau M., Vancutsem F., and Vilret A., 2009. Carbon sequestration by a crop during a four year rotational cycle. Agr. Forest Meteorol., 149, 407-418, doi:10

Open access

Eiko Nemitz, Ivan Mammarella, Andreas Ibrom, Mika Aurela, George G. Burba, Sigrid Dengel, Bert Gielen, Achim Grelle, Bernard Heinesch, Mathias Herbst, Lukas Hörtnagl, Leif Klemedtsson, Anders Lindroth, Annalea Lohila, Dayle K. McDermitt, Philip Meier, Lutz Merbold, David Nelson, Giacomo Nicolini, Mats B. Nilsson, Olli Peltola, Janne Rinne and Mark Zahniser

REFERENCES Alberto M.C.R., Wassmann R., Buresh R.J., Quilty J.R., Correa T.Q., Sandro J.M., and Centeno C.A.R., 2014. Measuring methane flux from irrigated rice fields by eddy covariance method using open-path gas analyzer. Field Crops Research, 160, 12-21. Aubinet M., Grelle A., Ibrom A., Rannik U., Moncrieff J., Foken T.,... Vesala T., 2000. Estimates of the annual net carbon and water exchange of forests: The EUROFLUX methodology, in: Advances in Ecological Research, 30, Advances in Ecological Research, 113-175. Aubinet M., Vesala T., and