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Robert Northcott

Social Sciences . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fair, Ray. 1978. The effect of economic events on votes for President. Review of Economics and Statistics 60: 159–73. Frigg, Roman; Bradley, Seamus; Du, Hailiang; and Smith, Leonard. 2014. Laplace’s Demon and the adventures of his apprentices. Philosophy of Science 81: 31–59. Giddens, Anthony. 1976. New Rules of Sociological Method: A Positive Critique of interpretative Sociologies . London: Hutchinson. Guala, Francesco. 2005. Methodology of Experimental Economics . Cambridge

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David Botting

Abstract

Can a collective be an agent in its own right? Can it be the bearer of moral and other properties that we have traditionally reserved for individual agents? The answer, as one might expect, is ‘In some ways yes, in other ways no.’ The way in which the answer is ‘Yes’ has been described recently by Copp; I intend to discuss his position and defend it against objections. This describes a fairly weak form of autonomy that I will claim does not require the abandonment of methodological individualism or our commonplace intuitions about individual responsibility. I will also discuss, and reject, a stronger conception of autonomy suggested especially by the work of Pettit that would result in methodological individualism.

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Jon Williamson

Abstract

Systems medicine is a promising new paradigm for discovering associations, causal relationships and mechanisms in medicine. But it faces some tough challenges that arise from the use of big data: in particular, the problem of how to integrate evidence and the problem of how to structure the development of models. I argue that objective Bayesian models offer one way of tackling the evidence integration problem. I also offer a general methodology for structuring the development of models, within which the objective Bayesian approach fits rather naturally.

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María Jiménez-Buedo and Federica Russo

Abstract

The advantage of examining causality from the perspective of modelling is thus that it puts us naturally closer to the practice of the sciences. This means being able to set up an interdisciplinary dialogue that contrasts and compares modelling practices in different fields, say economics and biology, medicine and statistics, climate change and physics. It also means that it helps philosophers looking for questions that go beyond the narrow ‘what-is-causality’ or ‘what-are-relata’ and thus puts causality right at the centre of a complex crossroad: epistemology/methodology, metaphysics, politics/ethics. This special issue collects nine papers that touch upon various scientific fields, from system biology to medicine to quantum mechanics to economics, and different questions, from explanation and prediction to the role of both true and false assumptions in modelling.

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Alberto Voltolini

Abstract

In this paper, I will defend the claim that there are three existence properties: the second-order property of being instantiated, a substantive first-order property (or better a group of such properties) and a formal, hence universal, first-order property. I will first try to show what these properties are and why we need all of them for ontological purposes. Moreover, I will try to show why a Meinong-like option that positively endorses both the former and the latter first-order property is the correct view in ontology. Finally, I will add some methodological remarks as to why this debate has to be articulated from the point of view of reality, i.e., by speaking of properties, rather than from the point of view of language, i.e., by speaking of predicates (for such properties).

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Caterina Marchionni

References Alexandrova, Anna. 2008. Making models count. Philosophy of Science 75: 383–404. Alexandrova, Anna; and Northcott, Robert. 2013. It’s just a feeling: why economic models do not explain. Journal of Economic Methodology 20(3): 262–8. Axelrod, Robert. 1984. The Evolution of Cooperation . Penguin. Aydinonat, Emrah. 2008. The Invisible Hand in Economics: How Economists Explain Unintended Consequences . London/New York: Routledge. Backhouse, Roger. 2007. Representation in economics. In Measurement in Economics: A Handbook

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Riet Van Bork, Lisa D. Wijsen and Mijke Rhemtulla

Quarterly 35: 359–72. Bollen, Kenneth; and Lennox, Richard. 1991. Conventional wisdom on measurement: A structural equation perspective. Psychological Bulletin 110: 305–14. Bollen, Kenneth A.; and Ting, Kwok-Fai. 1993. Confirmatory tetrad analysis. Sociological Methodology 23: 147–75. Borsboom, Denny; Mellenbergh, Gideon. J.; and van Heerden, Jaap. 2003. The theoretical status of latent variables. Psychological Review 110: 203–19. Borsboom, Denny; Mellenbergh, Gideon. J.; and van Heerden, Jaap. 2004. The concept of validity. Psychological

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Marilia Espirito Santo

Kant. Tradu ão com introdu ão e notas por Guido Antônio de Almeida. São Paulo: Discurso Editorial: Barcarolla. Guyer, Paul. 1998. The Possibility of the Categorical Imperative. In Kant’s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: critical essays. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Henrich, Dieter. 1989. Kant’s notion of deduction and the methodological background of the first Critique. In Foster, E. (ed.) Kant’s Transcendental Deductions. The Three “Critiques” and the “Opus Postumum” . Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. Kant

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Massimiliano Vignolo

for Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company. Repr. in his Inquiries into Truth and Meaning. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984: 3–15. Dummett, Michael. 1973. Frege: Philosophy of Language. London: Duckworth, 1973. Evans, Gareth. 1982. The Varieties of Reference. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982. Horwich, Paul. 1998. Meaning. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998. Kaplan, David. 1969. Quantifying In. In D. Davidson and J. Hintikka, (eds.), Words and Objections. Dordrecht: Reidel

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Daniel Peterson

Reflections . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sachs, R. 1987. The Physics of Time Reversal . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Sklar, L. 1975. Methodological conservatism. The Philosophical Review 84: 374–400. Streater, R., and A. Wightman. 1980. PCT, Spin, Statistics, and All That . Princeton: Princeton University Press. Tooley, M. 1977. The nature of laws. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 7: 667–698.