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Reinhard Heun and Alan Pringle

mostly limited methodological standards or of low sample size and need improved research methodology ( Rutherford et al. 2003 , Maher et al. 2014 ). This suggests that even though brain damage can affect subjective mental health and well-being as well as being a cause for depression or dementia, there is as yet limited unequivocal evidence that neuropsychological damage to the brain causes significant increases in mental disorders in groups of active or retired professional or amateur players. However, it is not clear which mental health disorders may be caused or

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Giuseppe Carrà, Giulia Brambilla, Manuela Caslini, Francesca Parma, Alessandro Chinello, Francesco Bartoli, Cristina Crocamo, Luigi Zappa and Costanza Papagno

working memory – may be risk or maintenance factors for EDs ( Manasse et al., 2015 ). Nonetheless, evidence is somehow mixed in several aspects ( Wu et al., 2014 ), considering various socio-demographic and clinical confounders. Significant methodological weaknesses (e.g., use of a single executive control measure, omission of relevant covariates) in the current literature represent one reason for lack of consensus. For example, considering Anorexia Nervosa (AN), children and adolescents populations show little, if any, impairment in set-shifting ability ( Lang et al

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Matej Stuhec and Jordi Serra-Mestres

polypharmacy was not described, the trials were excluded. All types of polypharmacy were included. Trials including patients with any type of indication for antidepressant were included, although only papers with depression as the indication for treatment with antidepressants were searched in more detail. Trials with treatment-resistant depression and trials with 2 antidepressants concomitantly were excluded. The results were not divided according to the dosage regimen or type of depression. Trials with unclear methodology were also excluded (e.g., no treatment efficacy