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Natalia Sestakova, Angelika Puzserova, Michal Kluknavsky and Iveta Bernatova

ABSTRACT

In various areas of the bio-medical, pharmacological and psychological research a multitude of behavioural tests have been used to investigate the effects of environmental, genetic and epi-genetic factors as well as pharmacological substances or diseased states on behaviour and thus on the physiological and psycho-social status of experimental subjects. This article is reviewing the most frequently used behavioural tests in animal research (open field, elevated plus maze, zero maze, and black and white box). It provides a summary of common characteristics as well as differences in the methods used in various studies to determine motor activity, anxiety and emotionality. Additionally to methodological aspects, strain, sex and stress-related differences as well as the involvement of nitric oxide in modulation of motor activity and anxiety of rodents were briefly reviewed.

Open access

Kristina Belovicova, Eszter Bogi, Kristina Csatlosova and Michal Dubovicky

Abstract

An animal model of human behavior represents a complex of cognitive and/or emotional processess, which are translated from animals to humans. A behavioral test is developed primarily and specifically to verify and support a theory of cognition or emotion; it can also be used to verify a theory of a psychopathology, but it is not developed for a particular type of psychopathology. The paper reviews tests commonly used in novel drug discovery research. Focus is especially on tests which can evaluate anxiety-like (open-field test, novelty suppressed feeding, elevated plus maze, light/dark box, stressinduced hyperthermia) and depression-like behaviors (forced swim test, tail suspension test, sucrose preference test) as they represent an important methodological tool in pre-clinical as well as in behavioral toxicology studies.

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Bhoopendra Singh, Prakash Raj Singh and Manoj Kumar Mohanty

ABSTRACT

The mission to make humans less attractive to mosquitoes has fuelled decades of scientific research on mosquito behaviour and control. The search for the perfect topical insect repellent/killer continues. This analysis was conducted to review and explore the scientific information on toxicity produced by the ingredients/contents of a herbal product. In this process of systemic review the following methodology was applied. By doing a MEDLINE search with key words of selected plants, plant based insect repellents/ killers pertinent articles published in journals and authentic books were reviewed. The World Wide Web and the Extension Toxicity Network database (IPCS-ITOX) were also searched for toxicology data and other pertinent information. Repellents do not all share a single mode of action and surprisingly little is known about how repellents act on their target insects. Moreover, different mosquito species may react differently to the same repellent. After analysis of available data and information on the ingredient, of the product in relation to medicinal uses, acute and chronic toxicity of the selected medicinal plants, it can be concluded that the ingredients included in the herbal product can be used as active agents against mosquitoes. If the product which contains the powder of the above said plants is applied with care and safety, it is suitable fo use as a mosquito repellent/killer.

Open access

Monika Johansson, Jana Tomankova, Shengjie Li and Galia Zamaratskaia

References Alden PG, Plumb RS, Jones MD, Rainville PD, Shave D. (2010). A rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric methodology for the in vitro analysis of Pooled and Cocktail cytochrome P450 assays. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom 24: 147-154. Anzenbacher P, Anzenbacherová E. (2001). Cytochromes P450 and metabolism of xenobiotics. Cell Mol. Life Sci 58: 737-747. He F, Bi HC, Xie ZY, Zuo Z, Li JK, Li X, Zhao LZ, Chen X, Huang M. (2007). Rapid determination of six

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Randa H. Elslahi, Awad G. Osman, Ashraf M. Sherif and Adil A. Elhussein

pesticides. Methodological directions for laboratory and practical course “Chemical protection of plants”, Department of Chemical Plant Protection. Moscow Agricultural Academy.

Open access

Šárka Hřibová, Helena Zlámalová Gargošová and Milada Vávrová

liquid-phase bioassays using ecoscores to asses contaminated soils. Environ Pollut. 159: 2974-2981. Vavřiček D, Kučera A. (2014). Lesnicka pedologie pro posluchače LDF Mendelu v Brně. Ustav geologie a pedologie. p. 176. LUFA Speyer [webpage on the Internet]. Analyses Data Sheet. Speyer, Germany: LUFA Speyer [updated 2013 May; cited 2014, Aug]. Available form: http://www.lufa-speyer.de/images/stories/bodanalyse.pdf Methodological guideline of Department of Waste to determine the ecotoxicity of waste, Bulletin of the

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Awad Osman, Ashraf Sherif, Adil Elhussein and Afrah Mohamed

). Manual of microbiology , 4 th Edition, Moscow. Zinchenko, VA, Viatkina NE, Afanaseva AU. (1974). Biological methods for determination of the toxicity and residuals of pesticides. Methodological directions for laboratory and practical course "Chemical protection of plants" , Department of Chemical Plant Protection, Moscow Agricultural Academy.

Open access

Beáta Hubková, Oliver Rácz, Gabriel Bódy, Eugen Frišman and Mária Mareková

Settlements and Their Association with Health and Health-related Behaviour. Cent Eur J Public Health S2014 : S57–S64. Madarasová Gecková A, Jarcuska P, Mareková M, Pella D, Siegfried L, Jarcuska P, Halánová M, HepaMeta Team. (2014b). HepaMeta – Prevalence of Hepatitis B/C and Metabolic Syndrome in Population Living in Separated and Segregated Roma Settlements: a Methodology for a Cross-sectional Population-Based Study Using Community-Based Approach. Cent Eur J Public Health S2014 : S6–S11. Rosenberger J, Majrníková M, Jarcuska P, Pella D, Mareková M

Open access

Angelika Puzserova and Iveta Bernatova

References Bernatova I, Conde MV, Kopincova J, Gonzalez MC, Puzserova A, Arribas SM. (2009). Endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats: focus on methodological aspects. J Hypertens   27 : S27-S31. Bernatova I, Csizmadiova Z, Kopincova J, Puzserova A. (2007a). Vascular function and nitric oxide production in chronic social-stress-exposed rats with various family history of hypertension. J Physiol Pharmacol   58 : 487-501. Bernatova I, Csizmadiova Z. (2006). Effect

Open access

Lukman Adewale Alli

: Text and Methodology . Available from: http://www.ich.org/fileadmin/Public/Web_Site/ICH_Products/Guidelines/Quality/Q2_R1/Step4/Q2_R1_Guideline . Inyengar GR, Subramanian KS, Woittiez JRW. (1998). Sample decomposition in: Element Analysis of biological samples . pp. 103–125, Principles and Practice, CRC Press, Boca Raton. Irechukwu EN, Chima P. (2012). Social Service Administration in Gwagwalada Area Council: Militating Factors. Journal of Public Administration and Governance 2 (3): 159–170. Jarup L, Berglund M, Elinder CG, Nordberg G and