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Open access

Wenlong He, Chao Wen and Xiaoyu Wang

Abstract

Purpose: This study aims to gain insights into occupational exposure of medical staff to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to provide effective precautionary measures to protect them against risks arising from blood-borne pathogens.

Methodology: Data on 46 confirmed HIV-infected patients were analyzed statistically.

Results: Medical staff were exposed to blood-borne pathogens in 45 cases, and most were female and probationary nurses. Risks of occupational exposure of medical staff to HIV increased continuously as more HIV-infected patients were admitted by hospitals each year.

Conclusion: Medical staff should receive information about HIV blood-borne pathogen infection of patients, shorten the window period for HIV exposure, and practice specified precautionary measures and cut down risks of exposure to HIV.

Open access

Lei Gu, Wen Wen, ZhiXian Wu, Kai Bai, Wei Liu, GuoXiang Lai and DongLiang Li

Abstract

Background

Normal platelet (PLT) plays a vital role in thrombosis, the inflammatory response, and liver regeneration. The effect of abnormal PLT counts has been seldom explored in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); hence, this investigation was conducted to evaluate the prognostic importance of preoperative abnormal PLT count in HCC patients after liver resection retrospectively.

Methodology

The PLT counts were determined using Sysmex XT-1800i automated hematology analyzer and its matching reagents. Patients were divided into two groups: a normal PLT group and an abnormal PLT group. Chi-square test, Kaplan–Meier method, and Cox univariable and multivariable regressions were utilized to analyze the data.

Results

A total of 391 HCC patients who underwent liver resection were included in this study. The overall survival (OS) rates were 59% and 31%, and the median survival time was 69 months and 31 months in the normal and abnormal PLT groups, respectively. The PLT level was associated with OS in univariate and multivariate analyses (hazard ratio [HR], 1.991 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.412–2.808] and HR, 2.217 [95% CI, 1.556–3.159], respectively).

Conclusions

Patients with normal PLT had a better outcome in terms of OS. The results suggested that abnormal PLT count is an independent prognostic factor for HCC patients after liver resection.

Open access

Fan Nie, Ke Hong, Hui-juan Li, Xiu-hui Li, Shuang-jie Li, Wei Zhang, Qing-jing Zhu, Lukun Zhang and Guang Nie

Abstract

Objective To realize the characteristics of “zheng” differentiation-treatment for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), a new methodology of syndrome differentiation for different stages of HFMD has been explored.

Methods Total of 2 325 cases with HFMD were recorded by distributing them into exterior syndrome stage, interior syndrome stage, severe syndrome stage and recovered syndrome stage, respectively, and the main symptoms and subsidiary symptoms of different stages of HFMD have been observed. The major and minor pathogenesis of HFMD in different stages were obtained, and compared with the “2010 Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of HFMD”.

Results It was found that the major pathogenesis of exterior stage was defined as “the invation of the wenevil to the defender of the body with the collaterals got involved”, and the minor as “qi deficiency”; in interior stage, “the fury of Gan-Yang” was the main pathogenesis, and “qi in chaos and qi deficiency” was the minor; in severe syndrome stage, “the damage of heart, liver and lung” was the main pathogenesis, and “qi in chaos” was the minor; and the pathogenesis of recovered stage was “qi-yin deficiency”. Compared with the “2010 Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of HFMD”, it showed that “the obstruction of the fei-pi qi by the mixture of shi-re evil” and “the mixture of shi-re” in vivo was quite difficult to be explained in completely different context in the general situation; in the severe stage, the TCM clinical characteristics of syndrome differentiation might lose; in the early acute severe cases, the phenomenon that xin-yang and fei-qi almost ran out was difficult to be observed, then, the line between the severe and the acute severe became vague.

Conclusions The theory of syndrome differentiation by stages of HFMD was reasonable in the actual situation of clinical description on HFMD which was expected to be further tested and widely applied in the “zheng” differentiation-treatment of HFMD in the future.

Open access

Zhen Ye, Min Zhao, He Jiao, Yang Feng, Ying-zi Li, Cui-fang Nie, Yan-mei Zhang, Bo Zhang, Shu-Lian Zhao, Zheng-hua Zhao and Guang-ju Meng

Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effects of telbivudine and entecavir on patients with chronic hepatitis B by meta-analysis method.

Methods Databases including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE and HighWire were searched from January 2008 to October 2012. Randomized controlled trials on treatment of chronic hepatitis B with telbivudine and entecavir were included. According to the Cochrane systematic reviews, the methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated and effective data was extracted from these studies and analyzed.

Results Six studies were included eventually. The telbivudine group included 417 cases and the entecavir group included 396 cases. For 12-week antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B, the rate of undetectable HBV DNA was 39.1% with telbivudine and 38.6% with entecavir [OR = 1.04, 95% CI (0.62, 1.73), P > 0.05]; for treatment of HBeAg (+) hepatitis B, the HBeAg clearance rate was 23.8% with telbivudine and 3.8% with entecavir [OR= 8.07, 95% CI (2.69, 24.21), P < 0.05], and the HBeAg seroconversion rate was 6.7% with telbivudine and 3.8% with entecavir [OR = 4.95, 95% CI (1.60, 15.31), P < 0.05]; the ALT normalization rate was 54.3% with telbivudine and 58.5% with entecavir [OR = 0.84, 95% CI (0.49, 1.45), P > 0.05]; and for early-stage treatment, the incidence of adverse events was 17.2% with telbivudine and 22.0% with entecavir [OR = 0.66, 95% CI (0.33, 1.32), P > 0.05]. For 1-year antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B, the rate of undetectable HBV DNA was 79.4% with telbivudine and 89.7% with entecavir [OR = 0.46, 95% CI (0.28, 0.74), P < 0.05]; for treatment of HBeAg (+) hepatitis B, the HBeAg clearance rate was 28.9% with telbivudine and 15.6% with entecavir [OR = 2.21, 95% CI (1.06, 4.58), P < 0.05], and the HBeAg seroconversion rate was 31.2% with telbivudine and 18.5% with entecavir [OR = 2.31, 95% CI (1.23, 4.31), P < 0.05]; the ALT normalization rate was 85.8% with telbivudine and 84.9% with entecavir [OR = 0.90, 95% CI (0.29, 2.84), P > 0.05]; and the resistance rate was 6.0% with telbivudine and 0.76% with entecavir [OR = 5.71, 95% CI (1.67, 19.47), P < 0.05].

Conclusions For 1-year treatment of chronic hepatitis B, the difference in ALT normalization between telbivudine and entecavir was not statistically significant; and telbivudine was superior over entecavir in terms of HBeAg undetectable and HBeAg seroconversion; entecavir was superior over telbivudine in terms of HBV DNA undetectable and resistance; and both drugs had similar rates of adverse events in early-stage treatment and no severe adverse event was noted. Both telbivudine and entecavir are effective antiviral drugs against hepatitis B.

Open access

Xiaoming Gu

PCR assays for detection of Mycoplasma genitalium in urogenital specimens from men and women. J Med Microbiol, 2008, 57(Pt 3): 304-309. 12 Twin J, Taylor N, Garland SM, et al . Comparison of two Mycoplasma genitalium real-time PCR detection methodologies. J Clin Microbiol, 2011, 49(3): 1140-1142. 13 Shipitsyna E, Zolotoverkhaya E, Dohn B, et al . First evaluation of polymerase chain reaction assays used for diagnosis of Mycoplasma genitalium in Russia. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, 2009, 23 (10): 1164-1172. 14 Lillis RA, Nsuami MJ, Myers L, et

Open access

Hua Mao, Deng-feng Jiang and Li-yun Huang

, Garcia-Gil FA, et al. Cardiac function and aminoterminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide values in liver-transplanted cirrhotic patients. Clin Transplant 2012;26:111-116. 35. Matsuo H. Discovery of a natriuretic peptide family and their clinical application. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2001;79:736-740. 36. Boomsma F. Plasma A- and B-type natriuretic peptides: physiology, methodology and clinical use. Cardiovasc Res 2001;51:442-449. 37. Cea LB. Natriuretic peptide family: new aspects. Curr Med Chem Cardiovasc Hematol Agents 2005

Open access

Pingdong Jia

References 1 Ren N, Feng L, Wen X, et al . Practical Hospital Infection Monitoring Methodology , Changsha: Hunan Science and Technology Press, 2012. 2 Huang W, Chen H, Chu L, et al . The loss of economic evaluation for surgical Site infection Clinical and experimental Medical Journal, 2010, 9(9):655-657. 3 Malone DL, Genuit T, Tracy JK, et al . Surgical site infections: reanalysis of risk factors. J Surg Res, 2002, 103(1): 89-95. 4 Liu Y. Progress on the prevention and controlling of the surgical site infection. The Chinese Journal of

Open access

Lingling Zu

References 1 Cover TL. Perspectives on methodology for in vitro culture of Helicobacter pylori . Methods Mol Biol, 2012, 921:11-15. 2 Noto JM, Peek RM Jr. Helicobacter pylori : an overview. Methods Mol Biol, 2012, 921:7-10. 3 Engstrand L, Lindberg M. Helicobacter pylori and the gastric microbiota. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol, 2013,27(1):39-45. 4 Warren J, Marshall B. Unidentified curved bacilli on gastric epithelium in active chronic gastritis. Lancet, 1983, 1(8336):1273-1275. 5 Marshall BJ, Warren JR. Unidentified curved