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Open access

Wenlong He, Chao Wen and Xiaoyu Wang


Purpose: This study aims to gain insights into occupational exposure of medical staff to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to provide effective precautionary measures to protect them against risks arising from blood-borne pathogens.

Methodology: Data on 46 confirmed HIV-infected patients were analyzed statistically.

Results: Medical staff were exposed to blood-borne pathogens in 45 cases, and most were female and probationary nurses. Risks of occupational exposure of medical staff to HIV increased continuously as more HIV-infected patients were admitted by hospitals each year.

Conclusion: Medical staff should receive information about HIV blood-borne pathogen infection of patients, shorten the window period for HIV exposure, and practice specified precautionary measures and cut down risks of exposure to HIV.

Open access

K. Oberhauserová, E. Bazsalovicsová, I. Králová-Hromadová, P. Major and M. Reblánová


Molecular comparative analysis of eggs of four liver and stomach flukes of cervids and domestic ruminants, Fasciola hepatica, Fascioloides magna, Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Paramphistomum cervi, was performed using a new methodological approach for eggshell disintegration. Eggs of all species were crushed mechanically by the Teflon method (PTFE) without use of chemical reagents and an efficient disruption of eggshell was checked microscopically. The egg suspension was then subjected to DNA isolation and PCR amplification using species-specific primers that annealed to the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of ribosomal DNA. The size of PCR products of individual species corresponded well to the size of amplicons obtained from adult flukes. The results provided evidence that the Teflon method does not destroy the structure of egg DNA, thus making the procedure broadly applicable during coprological examinations. Molecular markers introduced here are particularly important for blanket screening and differentiation of morphologically hardly distinguishable F. hepatica, F. magna and P. cervi eggs.

Open access

Goce Spasovski, Pierre Cochat, Frans Hj Claas, Uwe Heemann, Julio Pascual, Chris Dudley, Paul Harden, Marivonne Hourmant, Umberto Maggiore, Maurizio Salvadori, Jean-Paul Squifflet, Jurg Steiger, Armando Torres, Ondrej Viklicky, Martin Zeier, Raymond Vanholder, Wim Van Biesen, Evi Nagler and Daniel Abramowicz


The Clinical Practice Guideline on evaluation of the kidney donor and transplant recipient was developed following a rigorous methodological approach aiming to provide information and aid decision-making to the transplant professionals. Thus, this document should help caregivers to improve the quality of care they deliver to patients with no intention it is defined as a standard of care.

In this short version of the guidelines we present 112 statements about the evaluation of the kidney transplant candidate as well as the potential deceased and living donor, the immunological work-up of kidney donors and recipients and the perioperative recipient care.

The extended version of the guidelines with methods, rationale and references is published in Nephrol Dial Transplant (2013) 28: i1-i71; doi: 10.1093/ndt/gft218 and can be downloaded freely from

Open access

Elżbieta Bilińska and Waldemar Buchwald


Introduction: Fresh herbs of poison hemlock (Conii maculati herba) are used in homeopathy. The plant is also used in pharmacological and toxicological studies. There are few articles on seed germination capability in available literature.

Objective: The aim of the research was evaluation of Conium maculatum seed germination.

Methods: Germination studies of C. maculatum L. were carried out according to methodology by ISTA.

Results: It was confirmed that the germination capability of the described species is dependent on access to light and temperature fluctuations. In the first year after harvest, the highest percentage of germinating seeds was found in the winter months (January–February).

Conclusion: The seeds stored in an unheated room still germinated in the fifth year after harvest.

Open access

V. Miclăuş, A. Gal, C. Cătoi and A. Mihalca


The European pond turtle gradually disappeared from most of its range due to various factors. Hence, conservation measures are of main concern in all European countries where it is still present. A decent methodology for assessing the effect of parasites on the health of wildlife is microscopic lesion description. In 2002–2007, eight Emys orbicularis were brought for necropsy. The presence of gastric nematodes, identified as adults and larval Spiroxys contortus was noticed in all the turtles. A discrete cellular infiltrate with mononuclear cells and eosinophils was noticed in the gastric mucosa. The most prominent lesions were severe granulomas with or without degenerated larval structures. Some of the granulomas presented a central area of coagulation necrosis surrounded by giant cells, epithelioid cells and macrophages. In mature granulomas, the cluster of macrophage cell line and necrosis were surrounded by a fibrous capsule. Vascular cuffs, hyperemia, edema and venous ectasia were also present.

Open access

Lei Gu, Wen Wen, ZhiXian Wu, Kai Bai, Wei Liu, GuoXiang Lai and DongLiang Li



Normal platelet (PLT) plays a vital role in thrombosis, the inflammatory response, and liver regeneration. The effect of abnormal PLT counts has been seldom explored in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); hence, this investigation was conducted to evaluate the prognostic importance of preoperative abnormal PLT count in HCC patients after liver resection retrospectively.


The PLT counts were determined using Sysmex XT-1800i automated hematology analyzer and its matching reagents. Patients were divided into two groups: a normal PLT group and an abnormal PLT group. Chi-square test, Kaplan–Meier method, and Cox univariable and multivariable regressions were utilized to analyze the data.


A total of 391 HCC patients who underwent liver resection were included in this study. The overall survival (OS) rates were 59% and 31%, and the median survival time was 69 months and 31 months in the normal and abnormal PLT groups, respectively. The PLT level was associated with OS in univariate and multivariate analyses (hazard ratio [HR], 1.991 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.412–2.808] and HR, 2.217 [95% CI, 1.556–3.159], respectively).


Patients with normal PLT had a better outcome in terms of OS. The results suggested that abnormal PLT count is an independent prognostic factor for HCC patients after liver resection.

Open access

Grażyna Silska and Jan Bocianowski


Introduction: The Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants (INF&MP) is involved in the protection of the genetic resources of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). In 1998–2000, the INF&MP conducted research titled “Collection and evaluation of flax and hemp cultivars and ecotypes”. Poland participates in the programme, financed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development because our country has signed the Convention on Biological Diversity.

Objective: The objective of the research was the evaluation of the genetic resources of 23 accessions of flax. The characteristics data for flax accessions are presented according to traditional methodology and according to the methodology for developing the International Flax Data Base.

Methods: Field trials were carried out in 1998–2000 in the experimental station in Wojciechów, located in the Opolskie region. The objective was to evaluate the morphological traits, biological features and seed yield of 23 accessions of flax. The research included the following genotypes of Linum usitatissimum L. according to type of use: 12 linseed varieties, three landraces, one accession of unknown type of use, six fibre varieties and one genotype of both types of use.

Results: The total plant length of Linum was short for 12 accessions of flax, medium short (7) and medium (4). The technical length was short (17 accessions), medium short (3) and medium (3). The stem thickness for all accessions was medium, i.e. between 1.2 and 2.0 mm. The panicle length was short (12 accessions), medium (10) and long (1). A number of primary lateral branches of the stems of all flax accessions was medium (4–8 branches). The 1000 seed weight was low for 21 accessions of flax and very low in two genotypes: Currong and UKR 97 104. The size of the corolla (flower) was small (9), medium (12) and large (2) – varieties: Martin and Maxigold. The petal colour of the corolla was blue (11), light blue (8) and white (4) – Crystal, Hella, Kreola, Achay.

Conclusions: Morphological characterisation of the stamen showed that accession K-1390 was segregating because the anther colour was bluish and greish. The highest resistance to lodging was observed for Abby, Peak and Olinette. The following accessions of flax were very resistant to Fusarium: Martin, UKR 97269, Kijewskij and Ukraińskij 3; resistant to Fusarium: Abby, Peak, Olinette, Crystal, Gold Merchant, Currong and Ukraińskij 2. The following varieties were very susceptible to Fusarium: Hella, Kreola, Maxigold and Achay. These varieties should not be used for cross breeding. The best average seed yield in 1998–2000 in Wojciechów was found in the following accessions of flax: Abby (191%), Gold Merchant (162%), Currong (161%), Olinette (151%), PEAK (148%), UKR 97269 (148%), Crystal (138%), Ukraiński 3 (132%), Martin (130%), Pacific (110%) and Ukraiński 2 (103%). These varieties are particularly valuable for flax breeders.

Open access

Fan Nie, Ke Hong, Hui-juan Li, Xiu-hui Li, Shuang-jie Li, Wei Zhang, Qing-jing Zhu, Lukun Zhang and Guang Nie


Objective To realize the characteristics of “zheng” differentiation-treatment for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), a new methodology of syndrome differentiation for different stages of HFMD has been explored.

Methods Total of 2 325 cases with HFMD were recorded by distributing them into exterior syndrome stage, interior syndrome stage, severe syndrome stage and recovered syndrome stage, respectively, and the main symptoms and subsidiary symptoms of different stages of HFMD have been observed. The major and minor pathogenesis of HFMD in different stages were obtained, and compared with the “2010 Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of HFMD”.

Results It was found that the major pathogenesis of exterior stage was defined as “the invation of the wenevil to the defender of the body with the collaterals got involved”, and the minor as “qi deficiency”; in interior stage, “the fury of Gan-Yang” was the main pathogenesis, and “qi in chaos and qi deficiency” was the minor; in severe syndrome stage, “the damage of heart, liver and lung” was the main pathogenesis, and “qi in chaos” was the minor; and the pathogenesis of recovered stage was “qi-yin deficiency”. Compared with the “2010 Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of HFMD”, it showed that “the obstruction of the fei-pi qi by the mixture of shi-re evil” and “the mixture of shi-re” in vivo was quite difficult to be explained in completely different context in the general situation; in the severe stage, the TCM clinical characteristics of syndrome differentiation might lose; in the early acute severe cases, the phenomenon that xin-yang and fei-qi almost ran out was difficult to be observed, then, the line between the severe and the acute severe became vague.

Conclusions The theory of syndrome differentiation by stages of HFMD was reasonable in the actual situation of clinical description on HFMD which was expected to be further tested and widely applied in the “zheng” differentiation-treatment of HFMD in the future.

Open access

E. Karanastasi, I. Conceição, M. Santos, E. Tzortzakakis and I. O. Abrantes

[1] Esbenshade, P. R., Triantaphyllou, A. C. (1985): Identification of major Meloidogyne species employing enzyme phenotypes as differentiating characters. In Barker, K. R., Carter, C. C., Sasser, J. N. (Eds): An Advanced Treatise on Meloidogyne Vol. II Methodology, North Carolina State University Graphics, Raleigh, USA: 113–123 [2] Esbenshade, P. R., Triantaphyllou, A. C. (1990): Isozyme phenotypes for the identification of Meloidogyne species. J. Nematol., 22: 10–15 [3] Hartman, K. M

Open access

J. Macko, V. Hanzelová and V. Dudiňák

Micropalama himantopus (Bonaparte, 1826). J. Parasitol., 69: 750–753 [4] Ferianc, O. (1977): Birds of Slovakia. I. Publ. House Veda, Bratislava (In Slovak) [5] Krabbe, H. (1882): Nye Bidrag til Kundskab om Fuglenes Baendelorme. Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., 6te Raekke, Naturvidenskabelig og Mathematisk Afd. 1ste Bd VII: 347–366 (In Danish) [6] Mass-Coma, S., Galan-Puchades, M. T. (1991): A methodology for the morphoanatomic and systematic study of the species of the