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Goce Spasovski, Raymond Vanholder, Bruno Allolio, Djillali Annane, Steve Ball, Daniel Bichet, Guy Decaux, Wiebke Fenske, Ewout Hoorn, Carole Ichai, Michael Joannidis, Alain Soupart, Robert Zietse, Maria Haller, Evi Nagler, Wim Van Biesen and Sabine van der Veer


Hyponatraemia, defined as a serum sodium concentration <135 mmol/l, is the most common disorder of body fuid and electrolyte balance encountered in clinical practice. It can lead to a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, from subtle to severe or even life threatening, and is associated with increased mortality, morbidity and length of hospital stay in patients presenting with a range of conditions. Despite this, the management of patients remains problematic. The prevalence of hyponatraemia in widely different conditions and the fact that hyponatraemia is managed by clinicians with a broad variety of backgrounds have fostered diverse institution-and speciality-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment. To obtain a common and holistic view, the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM), the European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) and the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA), represented by European Renal Best Practice (ERBP), have developed the Clinical Practice Guideline on the diagnostic approach and treatment of hyponatraemia as a joint venture of three societies representing specialists with a natural interest in hyponatraemia. In addition to a rigorous approach to methodology and evaluation, we were keen to ensure that the document focused on patient-important outcomes and included utility for clinicians involved in everyday practice.

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Evangelia Dounousi, Anila Duni, Konstantinos Leivaditis and Vassilios Liakopoulos

. Nessim SJ, Bargman JM. Occurrence of peritonitis in APD versus CAPD: methodologic problems. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2008; 23: 1769-1770. 36. Holley JL, Bernardini J, Piraino B. Continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis is associated with lower rates of catheter infections than continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 1990; 16: 133-136. 37. Akman S, Bakkaloglu SA, Ekim M, et al . Peritonitis rates and common microorganisms in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and automated peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Int 2009; 51: 246