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Ali Erfani Karimzadeh Toosi


Hepatic fibrogenesis is the final result of injury to the liver. Fibrosis could lead to hepatic dysfunction, important in the pathogenesis of other chronic problems. Therefore, understanding the mechanism, accurate diagnosis and staging of it in early stages accelerates the treatment and reduces the prevalence of chirrosis. Treatment strategies of liver problems and detction methods depend on the amount and progression of liver fibrosis and the rate of cirrhosis development. Traditionally the invasive method, liver biopsy, is reference standard to follow progression and stage of fibrosis. However, during the past decade, progressive development of novel non-invasive methodologies has challenged the invasive method. Non-invasive methods have been initially introduced for chronic hepatitis C with increasing use in other chronic liver diseases. The need for liver biopsy has nowadays decreased significantly as a result of these methodologies. Most of the new non-invasive methods depend on either ‘biological’ or ‘physical’ approaches.

In this review, starting from the mechanism of fibrogenesis, the current knowledge about diagnosis, treatment strategies and different methods for its evaluation is discussed. This is followed by a conclusion on what is expected to be known in this field during the future research.

Open access

Monica Ecobici and M. Voiculescu

REFERENCES 1. BOUTOUYRIE P, FLISER D, GOLDSMITH D, COVIC A, WIECEK A, ORTIZ A et al . Assessment of arterial stiffness for clinical and epidemiological studies: methodological considerations for validation and entry into the European renal and cardiovascular medicine registry . Nephrol Dial Transplant (2014) 29:232-239. 2. PALOMBO C, KOZAKOVA M. Arterial stiffness, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk: Pathophysiologic mechanism and emerging clinical indications . Vascul. Pharmacol (2015), . 3

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Cristian Baicus, Paul Balanescu, Adriana Gurghean, Camelia Georgeta Badea, Vlad Padureanu, Ciprian Rezus, Florin Mitu, Ruxandra Jurcut, Andra Rodica Balanescu, Ioana Daha, Eugenia Balanescu, Mihai Bojinca, Larisa Pinte, Alexandru Marian Constantin, Nicoleta Dima, Mariana Floria, Maria Magdalena Leon-Constantin, Mihai Roca, Magda Mitu, Silvia Chiriac, Mariana Floria, Codruta Minerva Badescu, Simona Daniela Ionescu, Elena Mitrea, Gabriel Rosu, Georgeta Daniela Ionescu, Ana Maria Visinescu, Gabriela Mihailescu, Emilia Oprisan, Stefan Zeh, Isabelle Scholl and Martin Härter

References 1. GÄRTNER FR, BOMHOF-ROORDINK H, SMITH IP, SCHOLL I, STIGGELBOUT AM, PIETERSE AH. The quality of instruments to assess the process of shared decision making: A systematic review . PLoS One. 2018; 13 (2):e0191747 2. TERWEE CB, PRINSEN CAC, CHIAROTTO A, WESTERMAN MJ, PATRICK DL, ALONSO J, BOUTER LM, DE VET HCW, MOKKINK LB. COSMIN methodology for evaluating the content validity of patient-reported outcome measures: a Delphi study . Qual Life Res. 2018; 27 (5):1159-1170 3. PRINSEN CAC, MOKKINK LB, BOUTER LM, ALONSO J, PATRICK DL, DE

Open access

Adela Turcanu, Ecaterina Pitel, Vlada-Tatiana Dumbrava, Eugen Tcaciuc, Ana Donscaia, Angela Peltec and Pascal Pineau

., KUBALLA, T., SOHNIUS, E., REHM, J., et al. Is contaminated unrecorded alcohol a health problem in the European Union? A review of existing and methodological outline for future studies . Addiction. 2011; 106 :Suppl 1:20-30. 10. WHO W.H.O. Age-standardized death rates of liver cirrhosis . 2017. 11. TURCANU G., DOMENTE, S., BUGA, M. and RICHARDSON, E. Republic of moldova health system review . 2012; 14. 12. TANASE A., MARCHIO, A., DUMITRASCU, T., DIMA, S., HERLEA, V., OPRISAN, G., et al. Mutation Spectrum of Hepatocellular Carcinoma from Eastern

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Alina Dima, Simona Caraiola, C. Jurcut, Eugenia Balanescu, P. Balanescu, Doina Ramba, Camelia Badea, V. Pompilian, R. Ionescu, Anda Baicus, C. Baicus and G. A. Dan

erythematosus of the Spanish Society of Rheumatology: objectives and methodology. Reumatol Clin. 2014; 10(1):17-24. 11. UROWITZ MB, GLADMAN DD, IBAÑEZ D, FORTIN PR, BAE SC, GORDON C, et al. Evolution of disease burden over five years in a multicenter inception systemic lupus erythematosus cohort. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012; 64(1):132-7. 12. SZODORAY P, TARR T, TUMPEK J, KAPPELMAYER J, LAKOS G, POOR G, et al. Identification of rare anti-phospholipid/protein co-factor autoantibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Autoimmunity. 2009; 42

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C. Lucan, Laura-Ancuta Pop, A. Florian, Valentina Pileczki, B. Petrushev, Delia Dima, Ioana Frinc, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe, A. Irimie, C. Berce, I.-S. Florian, Anca Bojan and C. Tomuleasa

. 2012; 13 :341. 32. METZKER ML. Sequencing technologies – the next generation . Nat Rev Genet. 2010; 11 (1):31-46. 33. GRADA A., WEINBRECHT K. Next-generation sequencing: methodology and application . J Invest Dermatol. 2013; 133 (8):e11. 34. MELDRUM C, DOYLE MA, TOTHILL RW. Next-generation sequencing for cancer diagnostics: a practical perspective. Clin Biochem Rev. 2011; 32 (4):177-95. 35. ROBINSON J., HALLIWELL JA., MCWILLIAM H., LOPEZ R., PARHAM P., MARSH SG. The IMGT/HLA database . Nucleic Acids Res. 2013; 41 (Database issue

Open access

Romeo-Gabriel Mihăilă

Antibodies in Hemophilia A . N Engl J Med. 2016; 374 :2054-2064. 51. MANNUCCI P.M., MANCUSO M.E., SANTAGOSTINO E. How we choose factor VIII to treat haemophilia . Blood. 2012; 119 :4108-4114. 52. PEYVANDI F., MANNUCCI P.M., PALLA R., ROSENDAAL F.R. SIPPET: methodology, analysis and generalizability . Haemophilia. 2017; 23 :353-361. 53. AFONJA O., KOZAK R., PETRARO P., MICHAELS L.A., MATHEW P., LEMM G., et al. Baby hamster kidney cell-derived recombinant factor VIII: a quarter century of learning and clinical experience . Expert Rev Hematol. 2016; 9

Open access

Victor Tak-lung Wong and Weng-nga Lao

incidence of lymphoma with severity of RA. Around 400 lymphoma cases were matched with controls in Sweden from 1964 to 1999. Disease activity was assessed with a score combining erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), swollen/tender joints, and physician global assessment. Results showed that higher disease activity over time and worsening physical function disproportionately affects risk of lymphoma in patients with RA. Most common type of lymphoma was diffuse large B-cell type (48%) [ 4 ]. Mortality rates of cancer were not well studied because of methodological

Open access

Elaine Yuen Ling Au

1 Introduction Autoantibody detection plays an important role in the clinical management of patients with connective tissue disease. Detection of Anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) is a common screening test ordered during initial workup. Though ANA testing is simple, different laboratories vary in their test methodology and reporting format, and that could be confusing. In this review, a general introduction on the common diagnostic assays employed in ANA test, along with issues related to the interpretation would be discussed. In addition, an update on anti

Open access

TL Lai, CW Yim, MC Leung, PY Wong and WL Ng

status of Hong Kong Chinese PsA patients. 2 Methodology This was a cross-sectional observational study. The protocol was reviewed and approved by Kowloon East Cluster (KEC) Clinical Research Ethics Committee. The primary aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of PsA patients in public hospitals in Hong Kong. The secondary aim was to evaluate the prevalence and the associated factors of MetS among them. From June 2016 to January 2018, patients of Chinese ethnicity with PsA, aged 18 years or older, attending rheumatology clinics of