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R Sutka, J Pec and T Pecova

(5): e63619. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063619. 11. Gniadecki R, Kragballe K, Dam T, Skov L. Comparison of drug survival rates for adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab in patients with psoriasis vulgaris. BJD 2011; 164: 1091-6. 12. Burden A, Warren R, Kleyn C, McElhone K, Smith C, Reynolds N, Ormerod A, Griffiths C. The British Association of Dermatologists’ Biologic Interventions Register (BADBIR): design, methodology and objectives. British Journal of Dermatology 2012; 166: 545-54. 13. Rivera R, Garcia-Doval I, Carretero G, Daudén E, Sánchez

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E Malobicka, D Roskova, V Svihrova and H. Hudeckova

Abstract

Nosocomial infections are a serious problem not only in Slovakia but in all countries. The European Commission decided on their standardized surveillance in the whole European Union. According methodology elaborated by experts from the European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention in Stockholm we performed a point prevalence survey in the University Hospital Martin.

Our observed prevalence of nosocomial infections in University Hospital Martin within the point prevalence study was 5.2%.

The highest point prevalence of nosocomial infections was found at the Surgical Department (9.3%).

The most common type of nosocomial infections was urological infections (27.3%), sepsis (22.7%) and surgical site infection (22.7%). The most common microorganisms isolated from the biological material were Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. Appropriate method of nosocomial infections surveillance is monitoring their prevalence in the point prevalence studies. International projects of nosocomial infections in the EU allow to compare the obtained results with other hospitals in the Member States.

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E. Snircova, T. Kulhan, G. Nosalova and I. Ondrejka

Abstract

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood or adolescence is associated with a significantly higher lifetime risk of oppositional defiant disorder, anxiety disorder, conduct disorder, among others. Reports of co-morbidity rates are variable and influenced by assesment methodology and refferal bias, and may reflect lifetime rates within clinical groups. Up-to date studies revealed that as many as 85% of patients with ADHD have at least one psychiatric comorbidity and approximately 60% have at least two. Research and clinical practice has shown that having multiple co-existing psychiatric problems increase the severity of ADHD and behavioural problems, and is associated with incereased psychosocial impairment. The high rate of psychiatric problems co-occuring with ADHD has strong implications for the management of these patients. The presence of co-existing psychiatric conditions may moderate the response to treatment of ADHD and ADHD treatments may adversely affect and exacerbate the symptoms of the co-morbit condition. The aim of this article was to summarize the use of atomoxetine in the most frequent co-morbid disorders accompaining ADHD, ODD (oppositional defiant disorder) and anxiety, and to emphazise decrease of co-morbid symptoms with treatment of atomoxetine what exhort us to think about them as about possible subtypes of ADHD.

Open access

E Ruszova, M Chmelarova, M Senkerikova and S Stefackova

Abstract

Purpose: Our goal was to develop two-tier strategy based on in house-designed methylation specific-duplex polymerase chain reactions (MS-PCRs) that could serve as a relatively simple, cost effective, time efficient approach for molecular screening of imprinted regions on chromosomes 15 and 14.

Patients and methods: Patients were referred to examination during infancy due to hypotonia and motor development delay. Duplex MS-PCRs were performed that enabled detection of methylated/unmethylated DNA in NDN and MEG3 CpG islands via plurality of detection channels on PCR instrument Rotor Gene 6000.

Results and discussion: Both, copy number variations as well as methylation changes, were revealed by our in house-designed methodology by focusing NDN gene. No imprinting aberrations were yet discovered in MEG3 gene. Clinical features of the patients were compared. In agree with literature no typical facial features were observed in PWS patient with imprinting defect and AS UPD patient seems to have a relatively better development and language ability in comparison to deletional form of the disease.

Conclusion: In conclusion we were able to establish new, throughput and robust diagnostic approach to PWS/AS.

Open access

E. Zabkova, L. Murajda and H. Hudeckova

Point Prevalence Survey of Nosocomial Infections in University Hospital in Martin

Nosocomial infections (NI) are a serious problem not only in Slovakia but in all countries. The European Commission decided on their standardized surveillance in the whole European Union. According methodology elaborated by experts from the European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (ECDC) in Stockholm we performed a point prevalence survey in the University Hospital Martin (UHM). In this article we present the results which show that the prevalence of NI in UHM (5.5%) is comparable with the average in other European hospitals. In comparison with occurrence of NI (0.64%) reported through the Epidemiological Information System of the Slovak Republic, our results are 8.5-times higher. The highest point prevalence of NI was found at the Clinic of Hematology and Transfusiology - 7 patients (out of 15 hospitalized) which is 46.7%. The most common type of NI was sepsis (25.9%) and urological infection (22.2%). Based on the results obtained we recommend to continue in international projects of NI surveillance, so that it would be possible to acquire more accurate data on NI prevalence in UHM and do the benchmarking among hospitals in countries of the European Union.

Open access

V Ferencikova and O. Osina

Abstract

Based on the high prevalence, diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered as a worldwide problem. More than 8.3 % of the world population is suffering from this disease. One of the causing factors of this disease can be the absence or imbalance of trace, essential elements. It can cause collapses of antioxidant defence and glucose intolerance. It plays a role in the pathogenesis and progression to diabetes mellitus. This review focuses on chromium, copper, selenium, vanadium, and zinc. Many studies deal with these elements but there is variability in opinions. Insulin-mimetic activity and ability to control the concentrations of blood glucose were confirmed. However, these effects were of more importance in patients with prediabetes. In patients with prediabetes, due to the supplementation of selected trace elements, it is possible to normalize the blood glucose level and prevent the development of diabetes mellitus. The importance of supplementation was confirmed for chromium and zinc. The supplementation of vanadium has a positive effect on the normalization of glycaemia but it is necessary to control the level as it can have toxic effects during long-term treatment. Conversely, higher copper concentrations in the body adversely affect patients and chelation therapy is needed. Selenium must be kept in the standard concentration and regular control of the concentration in the body is necessary. For this reason it is necessary to continue with analysis and the creation of new methodologies that could unify the view on the issue.

Open access

P. Cech and J. Luptak

Abstract

Objective: The aim of our study is to evaluate complications In patients who underwent a Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsy (TRUS BP) at the Department of Urology of JFM CU and UHM in 2007-2008 and at the Department of Urology in Bojnice Hospital in 2009-2012.

Methodology, disclosures: In our study, patients with positive digital rectal examination (DRE) and/or with hig- her prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels (>4 ng/ml) are included. We excluded patients with PSA levels greater than 50ng/ml. as well as patients with less than 8 biopsy cores. The number of examined patients fulfilling the criteria was 474. An average age of them was 66.3 years (SD±8.3years). As an antibacterial prophylaxis, the patients were given fluoroquinolons in a dose of 500mg twice a day during a 3-day course of antibiotics, while the first dose was given one day before the procedure. In high risk patients, we used a single intramuscular dose of gentamycin 160mg right before the procedure followed by fluoroquinolons for the next five days.

Results: The most severe complication was vasovagal reaction, which occurred in 9 (1.9%) cases. Haematuria occurred in 122 (25.7%) cases up to 3 days and in 10 (2.1%) patients up to 7 days. Six patients (1.3%) required hospital admission for severe haematuria. Dysuria occurred in 71 patients (15%). Rectal bleeding occurred in 90 (19%) cases with an average 2 days of bleeding, from which 7 patients were admitted to hospital and administered haemostyptics. From the mentioned count. 2 (0.4%) patients underwent a rectal tamponade and one (0.2%) patient with arterial bleeding underwent an arterial ligation of a stricken artery. Haemospermia occurred in 71 (15%) cases. 23 (4.9%) patients suffered fever above 38°C. within whom in 7 (1.5%) cases was microscopicaly proven uri- nary tract infection requiring hospitalisation lasting 7 days on average. Sepsis occurred in 3 (0.6%) patients, symp- tomatic bacterial prostatitis in 6 (1.2%) cases and urinary retention occurred in one (0.2%) patient. There was not arty significant higher amount of complications in between 8-core and 10-core biopsy (P=0.26), not even in betwe- en 8-core and 12-core biopsy (P=0.32).

Conclusion: TRUS PB is a sale procedure with quite a low risk of complications. An important moment is a close monitoring right after the procedure. The most of the complications may persist for around two weeks and are trea- ted conservatively without persistent effects. Prophylaxis with broad spectrum antibiotics may provide an adequa- te coverage and lowers the risk of infectious complications.

Open access

R Sutka, J Pec and T Pecova

J Health Policy Law Ethics 2005; 5(2): 587-669. 61. Garattini S, Bertele V. How can we regulate medicines better?. BMJ 2007; 335(7624): 803-805. 62. Zink A, Askling J, Dixon W, Klareskog L, Silman A, Symmons D. European biologicals registers: methodology, selected results and perspectives. Ann Rheum Dis 2009; 68(8): 1240-1246. 63. Steliarova-Foucher E, Colombet M, Ries L, Moreno F, Doyla A, Bray F, Hesseling P, Shin H, Stiller C, IICC-3 contributors. International incidence of childhood cancer, 2001-10: a population-based registry study

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M. Javorka, I. Tonhajzerova, Z. Turianikova, L. Chladekova, K. Javorka and A. Calkovska

-9 Aubert AE, Ramaekers D. Neurocardiology: the benefits of irregularity. The basics of methodology, physiology and current clinical applications. Acta Cardiol 1999; 54: 107-120 Beckers F, Verheyden B, Ramaekers D, Swynghedauw B, Aubert AE. Effects of autonomic blockade on non-linear cardiovascular variability indices in rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2006; 33: 431-439 Schreiber T. Interdisciplinary application of nonlinear time series methods. Phys Rep 1999; 308: 1-64 Raab C, Wessel N