Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 76 items for :

  • methodology x
  • Internal Medicine, other x
Clear All
Open access

Marjan Dzeparoski

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the terminology, technology and methodology of pharmacoeconomic evaluations. The choice is made because there is small number of reviews on this subject in Macedonia, and also because of the subject actuality.

Methods: There are four common types of methods of cost-outcomes economic evaluations: Cost-minimisation analysis, Cost-effectiveness analysis, Cost-utility analysis and Cost-benefit analysis.

Results: There are 4 possible results arising in Cost-effectiveness analysis: the costs are lower and health benefits higher for one drug relative to another, the new drug is more expensive and less effective, the drug is more expensive and more effective and the drug is cheaper but less effective.

Conclusion: Pharmacoeconomic methods are used to assist physicians, hospitals, insurers, patients and healthcare professionals in making proper decisions what drug therapies should be chosen. The goal is to find the most efficient and effective treatment for the lowest cost, optimising the patient outcomes and decreasing costs to society.

Open access

Valentina Semanaj, Arbi Pecani, Teuta Dedej, Alma Barbullushi, Zamira Ylli, Teuta Curaj, Polikron Pulluqi, Tatjana Caja, Adela Perolla, Arben Ivanaj, Pal Xhumari and Genc Sulcebe

Abstract

Objective: Based on the flow cytometry multiparametric immunophenotyping methodology we studied some useful cell marker criteria needed for the practical differentiation of the chronic lymphocytic leukemia from other chronic limphoproliferative diseases with a leukemic component.

Materials and Methods: The applied methodology is a four color flow cytometry multiparametric immunophenotyping technique using EDTA blood samples taken from 84 consecutive patients diagnosed with CLL through a preliminary clinical and white blood cell examination. The following fluorescent stained monoclonal antibodies were used: CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD11c, CD19, CD20, CD23, CD25, FMC7 and kappa/lambda light chains.

Results: From the 84 individuals tested, 2 out of them (2.4%) resulted with a abnormal T-cell population while 82 (97.6%) showed a pathological B cell line. 58 (69.1%) patients resulted with typical CLL markers (CD19+CD5+CD23+) while 5 (5.9%) of them presented a non typical chronic lymphocytic leukemia profile (CD19+CD5+CD23-). 19 (22.6%) out of patients displayed an abnormal CD19+CD5- B cell population. A statistically significant correlation was found between the clinical stage of CLL and the positivity for the CD38 marker (p=0.04).

Conclusion: Flow cytometry immunophenotyping is a fundamental examination for the final diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The expression of CD38+ in CLL patients stands for a more advanced clinical stage.

Open access

Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska, Marija Raleva, Izabela Filov, Dinesh Sethi, Tamara Jordanova, Kadri Hazdi Hamza, Fimka Tozija and Vesna Damchevska Ilievska

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: One of the main objectives of this paper is to analyze the associations between physical abuse and neglect and health risk behaviours among young adolescents in the country.

METHOD: A representative sample consisted of total 1277 students (58.6% female and 41.6%), aged 18 and above. About 664 of them are in last (fourth) year of secondary school and 613 respondents are first- and second-year university students. The data were obtained using Adverse Childhood Experiences Study Questionnaires (Family Health History Questionnaire) for collecting information on child maltreatment, household dysfunction and other socio-behavioural factors, applying WHO/CDC-recommended methodology. Statistical significance was set up at p<0.05.

RESULTS: Physical abuse (21.1%) and physical neglect (20%) were reported with similar prevalence rates. Disciplining children by spanking or corporal punishment was presented with very high rate of 72.4%.

CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated a relationship between physical abuse and later manifestation of health risk behaviours such as: smoking and early pregnancy. Physical neglect increased the chances for drug abuse, drink-driving, having early sex, having more sexual partners.

Open access

Elena Kosevska, Aziz Polozani, Mome Spasovski, Marija Hristovska and Sandra Petlichkovska

Global Youth Tobacco Use Prevalence and Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke in the Republic of Macedonia in 2008

Introduction. The WHO and CDC have developed school-based Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) to track tobacco use among young people (13-15), intended to enhance the capacity of countries to design tobacco control programmes. It was undertaken in the Republic of Macedonia in 2002 and 2008.

Aim. The purpose of this paper was to ascertain data on young people's smoking prevalence and exposure to ETS and to propose measures for improvement in tobacco control.

Material and methods. A common methodology is used in GYTS 2008. Some 5824 questionnaires were completed in 75 schools. The overall response rate was 90.09%.

Results. Data indicate that 11.8% of students currently smoke cigarettes. Twenty six percent have ever smoked cigarettes in 2008. Approximately 5% of them are daily smokers. The most of current smokers (34.4%) live in Skopje, while 7.1% live in rural areas. 3.7% of students started smoking under 10, compared to 20% in 2002. Two thirds of students are exposed to ETS at home and 66% in public places. 86.4% of students in all regions thought smoking should be banned in all public places.

Conclusion. Country should engage positive public health attitude, healthy life-style and enforcement of law regulations in practice.

Open access

Tanja Jovanovska and Viktorija Prodanovska-Stojcevska

The Attitudes of Students - Future Health Professionals Regarding Tobacco Usage

Introduction: Smoking is considered as a lading cause of death it can be avoided of course. But, it seems paradox because in spite of numerous information of harmful effects due smoking, received through educational process, in Medical College of Bitola, smoking is still characteristic in this and other medical schools.

Aim of study: to asses prevalence of smoking among the students of Medical College in Bitola; to asses understanding and attitudes of investigated group about participation of the activities connected with control of tobacco use and quitting of smoking.

Materials and Methods: The study is realized through epidemiological study using cross sectional study for the period march-april 2010, according standardized methodology of Global Health Professional Survey (GHPS). Study population comprised 100 examined of the college students from the first, second and third year of studies.

Results: From the total number of investigated in this study, 75% have declared smokers, but 30% that smoked all 30 days in month. As for the attitudes referring the prohibition of selling tobacco to adolescents, 88% agree, 55% replayed with yes for forbidding smoking in discotheques, and 63% have attitude for forbidding smoking in public places.

Conclusion: Presence of smoking at the students of Medical College in Bitola is significant because from the total number of investigated 30% t have smoked 30 days in the month.

Open access

Oyebola O. Adekola, Ibironke Desalu, John O. Olatosi, Olushola T. Kushimo and Godwin O. Ajayi

, Parker SD, Frank SM, et al. Determinants of Catecholamine and Cortisol Response to Lower Extremity Revascularization. Anesthesiology. 1993;79:1202-9. 6. Lattermann R, Belohlavek G, Wittmann S. Fuchtmeier B, Gruber M. The Anticatabolic Effects of Neuraxial Blockade after Hip Surgery. Anesth Analg. 2005;101:1201-8. 7. Glucose (Trinder) assay. Methodology For The Quantitative Determination of Glucose Concentration in Serum. Genzyme Diagnostics. 2009;3:1-3. 8. Cortisol EIA. Methodology for the Direct Quantitative Determination of Cortisol by Enzymatic Oxidation

Open access

Evangelos Ximinis and Dimitrios Tortopidis

Summary

Background/Aim: To investigate the electromyographic (EMG) activity changes of jaw-closing muscles in patients with different occlusion schemes and posterior edentulous span, after the placement of teeth-supported fixed partial denture (FPD).

Material and Methods: The study sample consisted of 20 patients (10 men and 10 women, the mean age being 50 years) with a posterior edentulous area that includes two missing premolars or one premolar and one molar. The participants were divided into two groups with different occlusion schemes: canine-guided occlusion (CGO) and group function occlusion (GFO). The metal-ceramic FPD were fabricated according to the clinic-standardized protocol. EMG activities of masseter and anterior temporalis patients’ muscles were recorded with bipolar surface electrodes during maximal voluntary clenching. EMG evaluation was repeated twice: (T1) before the fabrication of FPD (T2) after eight weeks of FPD cementation and intraoral functioning of restoration. The data were subjected to Analysis of Variance–ANOVA within the methodological framework of the General Linear Models with Repeated Measures. The Bonferroni test was used to compare multiple mean measures. Statistical analysis was conducted with SPSS ver. 11.5. The level of significance was predefined at a=0.05.

Results: Group 1 with CGO presented significantly higher levels of masseter (mean maximum EMG average before 79.36μV and 139.68μV after) and temporalis (mean maximum EMG average before 79.07μV and 149.37μV after) EMG activity after FPD placement. Group 2 with GFO also showed significantly higher levels of masseter (mean maximum EMG average before 61.57μV and 165.30μV after) and temporalis (mean maximum EMG average before 56.94μV and 133.08μV after) EMG activity after the prosthetic restoration.

Conclusions: It may be concluded that fixed prosthetic restoration, in both patients with canine-guided and group function occlusion, results in increased EMG jaw-muscle activity.

Open access

Marija Raleva, Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska, Izabela Filov, Dinesh Sethi, Antoni Novotni, Dimitar Bonevski and Kadri Haxhihamza

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: One of the main objectives of this paper is to analyze the associations between childhood abuse, household dysfunction and the risk of attempting suicide among young adolescents in the country.

METHOD: A representative sample consisted of total 1277 students (58.6% female and 41.6% male), aged 18 and above in year four of 664 secondary school and 613 first- and second-year university students. The data were obtained using Adverse Childhood Experiences Study Questionnaires (Family Health History Questionnaire) for collecting information on child maltreatment, household dysfunction and other socio-behavioural factors, applying WHO/CDCrecommended methodology. Statistical significance was set up at p<0.05.

RESULTS: Emotional neglect, physical abuse and physical neglect were the most frequent abusive experiences students had. Overall, suicide attempts were reported by 3.1 % of respondents (4.7% by females and 0.8% by males). Those respondents who had been emotionally abused were almost three times as likely to attempt suicide, physical abuse almost doubles the chances of attempting suicide, substance abuse in the family increased the chances 2.3 times for attempting suicide, violent treatment of the mother almost quadrupled them for attempted suicide, having a family member who had been in prison increased the odds of almost 3.5 times for attempting suicide. Attempted suicide was found to be 1.5 times more likely as the number of ACEs reached 3 and 3.4 times more likely as the number of adverse childhood experiences reached four or more.

CONCLUSION: Identifying and treating children, adolescents and young adults who have been affected by adverse childhood experiences may have substantial value in our evolving efforts to prevent suicide

Open access

Khalid Dhafar, Zohair Gazzaz, Abdul Sindy and Mian Farooq

Functional Analysis of Mutahassaneen Area during Hajj 1427 Hijra

Objective. This study highlighted the activity of Mutahassaneen Area during Hajj-1427 Hijra (H).

Methodology. This Study was a retrospective observational review of those Hajj patients who stayed in the Mutahassaneen Area "a temporary ward opened adjacent to Al-noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, KSA, for 21 days for transaction of discharged Hajj patients from inpatients and emergency wards to their respective Hajj missions or groups". Subjects' demography, diagnosis, with dates and timings of admission and discharge was collected. Data was analysed by SPSS version 13. A p-value ≤0.05 was considered significant.

Results. Study included 619 patients with predominantly males 426 (68.8%). Majority of subjects 373 (60.3%) stayed ≤2 hours in area as well as ≤2 days in wards 355 (57.4%). Females spent lesser time than males in area (p=0.02). Males stayed longer in wards as well as in area (linear regression p-value=0.005). Circulatory system diseases counted maximum 186 (30%). A difference was found among stay of different diagnostic groups in area (p=0.05) as well as in wards (p<0.001). Arabic countries Hajjes weremaximum 186 (30%) and Iranian spent least time in the area (1.2 hours).Results. Study included 619 patients with predominantly males 426 (68.8%). Majority of subjects 373 (60.3%) stayed ≤2 hours in area as well as ≤2 days in wards 355 (57.4%). Females spent lesser time than males in area (p=0.02). Males stayed longer in wards as well as in area (linear regression p-value=0.005). Circulatory system diseases counted maximum 186 (30%). A difference was found among stay of different diagnostic groups in area (p=0.05) as well as in wards (p<0.001). Arabic countries Hajjes weremaximum 186 (30%) and Iranian spent least time in the area (1.2 hours).

Conclusion. Males were predominant and females spent less time in area. Diseases of circulatory system and Hajj visitors of Arabic world were dominant.