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Su-Hua Zheng, Min Yan, Tiffany Field and Xiao Xu

I, Hayes RJ, Altman DG. Empirical evidence of bias. Dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials. JAMA 1995:273:408-412. Schulz KF Chalmers I Hayes RJ Altman DG Empirical evidence of bias Dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials. JAMA 1995 273 408 – 412 27 Stack E, Roberts H, Ashburn A. Re: Allocation concealment. BMJ 2012:344.3-6. Stack E Roberts H Ashburn A Re: Allocation concealment BMJ 2012 344 3 – 6 28

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Violetta Mianowana, Marta Czekirda, Anna Bednarek, Dorota Nalepa and Kinga Mianowana


Introduction. Undoubtedly, the renal replacement therapy is stressful situation for the patients with chronic renal failure. Chronic disease limits and prevents meeting the psychosocial needs. It often causes the frustration, to which patients react in different ways.

Aim of the Study. Purpose of the research was to investigate patients’ expectations for the support and to define the support given by nurses.

Material and Methodology. One hyndred chronic renal failure patients were examined on the basis of an author’s questionnaire survey. Results were subjected to statistical analysis. Homogeneity test was used for unrelated quality characteristics to detect the existence of differences between compared groups.

Results. Most of patients expected the support first from their families (39%), next from doctors and nurses. Almost everybody (95.0%) Experienced emotional support from nurses during every hemodialysis.

Conclusions. The research shows that patients during stress expect a conversation and almost all of them accept the attitude of empathy. Those who received information support felt less stressed.

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Joanna Girzelska, Magdalena Głowacka, Dorota Wilk-Jeziorska, Agnieszka Malikowska, Jolanta Dziewulska and Anna Jasiówka


Introduction. Loneliness is considered a disease of affluence. It is a mixture of lack of acceptance, rejection and unpleasant experiences. It is accompanied by disappointment, unhappiness and pessimism. The consequences of loneliness can be seen in the psyche and physical ailments.

Aim. Demonstrating the impact of loneliness on the health of the elderly and possible interventions for entertainment in the prevention of loneliness of the elderly.

Methodology. Literature was classified into the analysis, from which the content regarding the influence of loneliness on health of elderly and selected preventive interventions of the discussing phenomena.

Conclusions. Loneliness results in the deterioration of the condition of the elderly, increases stress level in the body and the risk of depression. The ways of fighting with loneliness include education, participation in the Universities of the Third Age and activity in the senior clubs.

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Julia Nawrot, Magdalena Humaj-Grysztar, Agnieszka Gniadek, Dorota Matuszyk and Renata Biernat


Aim. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of life of women with pelvic organ prolapse during the postmenopausal period.

Material and methodology. The study group consisted of 45 patients of the Department of Gynecology and Oncology at the University Hospital in Cracow The study was conducted as a diagnostic survey using the following survey techniques: author's questionnaire and the Short Form of Health Status Questionnaire (SF-36v2).

Results. The results showed that the respondents rated their quality of life as lower than the norm set by the authors of the SF-36v2 questionnaire. A statistically significant (p<0.05) correlation between the age of the subjects and the quality of life was found.

Conclusions. The quality of life of the women with the pelvic organ prolapse was low. The reason of the subjective assessment of quality of life was age. The most common symptom associated with pelvic organ prolapse was feeling the urge to urinate.

Open access

Mariusz Panczyk, Aleksander Zarzeka, Lucyna Iwanow, Jarosława Belowska and Joanna Gotlib


Aim of the study. Starting on January 1, 2016, nurses and midwives (NM) acquire extending the professional powers. Assessing the reliability and validity of a questionnaire developed to evaluate the knowledge of and attitudes towards acquiring extending the professional powers of NM.

Material and methodology. Forty-two students, voluntary, anonymous, original questionnaire study, 11 questions (knowledge) and 32 statements (attitudes), the Likert scale.

Results. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient (α>0.70). Assessment of validity: indirect estimation of theoretical validity by identifying an internal correlation on the scale. Assessment of differences between the students: Kruskal-Wallis test, α=0.05, 11 knowledge-related questions - the easiness: 0.52, the mean differentiating power of 0.21. Cronbach’s alpha: 0.671. The subscale 1 comprising 26 statements underwent a factor analysis with two variables. The structure of subscale 2 (6 items) is uniform. The comparative analysis of students does not show differences by their majors (Kruskal-Wallis test).


  1. Assessment of reliability and validity of the questionnaire has demonstrated that it is a proper tool to evaluate attitudes towards extending professional powers of NM.

  2. Assessment of the questionnaire has confirmed that there is a need to modify the knowledge-related questions.

  3. The study should be continued among a greater number of NM that would be more diverse.

Open access

Ewa Kądalska, Halina Żmuda-Trzebiatowska and Katarzyna Pawłowska


Aim of the Study. To analyse the usefulness of specialization training in the area of long-term care nursing as well as the possibilities to make use of the acquired qualifications – in the opinion of the specialists in this area.

Material and Methodology. The questionnaire survey was conducted among 162 specialists in long-term care nursing.

Results. The majority of respondents considered the specialization training as useful (91.4%) and meeting their expectations (83.9%). As the result of obtained specialization, they perform their work with patients better (67.9%), demonstrate expertise and proficiency as well as high degree of efficiency (67.3%). Some of them exercise their right to independent provision of healthcare services, predominantly the assessment of the patient’s level of consciousness with the use of methods and classifications (75.7%), physical examination (61.2%), oxygen therapy (55.3%), and definitely less often – referral to diagnostic tests (20.4%).

Conclusions. Completion of a specialization training in the area of long-term care nursing brings satisfaction and professional prestige to specialists, results in increased professional independence and improvement in the quality of provided care. However, high qualifications of this professional group are underutilized.

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Joanna Dudzińska and Beata Dobrowolska


Aim. The aim of this paper is to present the teaching of the Catholic Church regarding the brain death and the human organ transplantation.

Material and methodology. The analysis of the official documents of the Holy See as well as the teaching and speeches of popes was made.

Results and Conclusions. The Catholic Church supports transplants from deceased persons and considers donating their organs after death for transplantation as the gift of the greatest love. However, it is not unconditional acceptance. The most important conditions are: the patient’s informed consent for organ donation and a precise statement of the death of the donor. The currently used definition of brain death has been declared by the Church not only as sufficient but also as definitive criterion of the death of a man. In Christian ethics, this criterion allows an ethical judgment, which is called as moral certainty and provides the basis for an ethically proper action. It is also stressed that the donation of organs for transplantation must be altruistic. It is unacceptable to expect and to receive any payment for such an act.

Open access

Sebastijan Forstnerič, Nino Fijačko, Majda Pajnkihar and Gregor Štiglic


Introduction. Accelerated computerization of health systems begun in Slovenia in 2008 with the eZdravje (eHealth) project. Various aspects of the system enable patients to track different aspects of their health care more efficiently. The eNaročanje (eScheduling) part enables patients to be more actively integrated into the health services, as well as presents significant help for administrative work and more time for health education.

Aim. The aim of our research was to show which type of patient appointment scheduling is the least burdensome for nurses.

Material and methods. We used a quantitative research methodology. Collecting data took place in May 2017. We gathered the various patterns of scheduling patients for appointments in a single month at an outpatient care unit in the north-eastern region of Slovenia. We collected the data concerning the time needed to perform different patients’ appointment scheduling and we interpreted the data with the help of descriptive statistics.

Results and conclusion. Between January 2016 and January 2017 less than 1% of patients made appointments through eNaročanje. Since January 2017, when eNaročanje started in studied unit, the percentage of patients who made their appointments through eNaročanje increased, and by May 2017 there were 60 (20%) of the overall 298 patients in the study who used the system. We came to the conclusion that in the 17 workdays in May 2017 there were 126 (42%) appointments made by men and 172 (58%) by women. An average time spent personally or on the phone calls scheduling was significantly higher than the time spent through the eNaročanje service. We have shown that out of 17 workdays, the nurse spends more than an entire workday for the patient appointment scheduling tasks (8 hours, 13 minutes and 31 seconds). Information and communication based solutions can bring many advantages, especially regarding the time burden challenges that the nurses currently face, optimization of administrative work as well as promoting health care through education of patients.

Open access

Bojana Filej, Boris Miha Kaučič, Boštjan Žvanut and Mojca Saje


Introduction. Man is a unique, unrepeatable whole in space and time and that is why he requires a holistic treatment, taking into account physical, psychological, social and spiritual factors. The balanced factors can ensure human well-being and his quality of life. Integrated treatment is especially important for patients in palliative care, which was the basic starting point of our research. In our research we wanted to establish whether the patients in palliative care are treated holistically from the perspective of the nurses and where are the specific aspects of palliative care (psychological, physical, social and spiritual) more visible - in the hospitals or in the home environment.

Material and methods. The questionnaire survey was based on the empirical quantitative methodology; a descriptive causal non-experimental method was used. The number of the included sample was 127 nurses (92 hospital nurses, 35 community nurses). To test the differences between the groups (hospital, community nursing), the single factor analysis of variance was used. All the research participants were ensured anonymity and they had the right to withdraw from the study before or during the questionnaire completion.

Results. The physical aspect of the treatment was statistically significantly higher assessed by nurses in a hospital setting (̅χ =3.83; s=1.012; p=0.042). The psychological and spiritual aspects were higher assessed in community nursing setting and social aspect in hospital setting.

Conclusions. Our research has highlighted the shortcomings of the holistic approach in palliative care. Nurses need in-depth knowledge and skills as well as practice within each holistic domain to perform quality treatment of palliative patients.

Open access

Jana Heczková and Alan Bulava


Introduction. The medicine management is considered an important area of health care, which is ensured by various healthcare professionals including nurses. Nurses gain the competence of medicines administration immediately after graduation. This competence can be applied to any area of healthcare. Even in specialized settings such as intensive care units, any additional qualification e.g. specialized education is not required. On the contrary, appropriate education is considered an important factor that could help to reduce the risk of adverse events related to medication management.

Aim. The aim of this study was to analyse the students’ knowledge in this field at the end of nursing studies at bachelor level (n = 67) and specialized intensive care nursing studies at master level (n = 42).

Methodology. Knowledge was assessed using a written test, which was related to the management of medicinal products administered commonly at intensive care units by qualified nurses as well as nurse specialists without distinction. From the point of view of the formal competencies of healthcare professionals, the questions were divided into three categories.

Results. The mean success rate on the test was 53.4%. The highest range of knowledge was demonstrated by already qualified students at the end of specialised studies with prior work experience in ICU, the lowest by students just before graduation. The highest rating was achieved by all students in the activity-oriented category for which the responsibility lies primarily with the medical doctor, but nurses were expected to have this knowledge and participate at related activities on the basis of a physician’s order. This knowledge included also the area of clinical pharmacology. On the other hand, the lowest score was achieved by all groups of students in the category of activities that are not treated by the physician’s order, and the use of diverse knowledge from different areas was usually necessary.

Conclusions. Clinical practice has an irreplaceable role for nurses in the process of qualifying education as well as lifelong learning. The extent of nursing education in medicine management, the manner of nursing training, as well as the proportion of nursing specialists in the nursing team at specialised workplaces, deserves much greater attention in terms of ensuring safe care in this area. Shifting some competencies and duties in medicine management, especially related to intravenous (IV) therapy, to less qualified healthcare professionals appears to be highly controversial and risky.