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Paula Rautionaho, Sandra C. Deshors and Lea Meriläinen

the interplay of emancipation and globalization of ESL varieties . Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Laitinen, Mikko and Magnus Levin. 2016. On the globalization of English: Observations of subjective progressives in present-day Englishes. In E. Seoane and C. Suárez-Gómez (eds.). World Englishes: New theoretical and methodological considerations , 229–252. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Leech, Geoffrey, Marianne Hundt, Christian Mair and Nicholas Smith. 2009. Change in contemporary English: A grammatical study. Cambridge: Cambridge

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Matti Rissanen

Abstract

In compiling and testing the diachronic part of the Helsinki Corpus of English Texts, our project group has come across three problems which arise from the use of computer corpora in studies of syntax and vocabulary. While these problems are mainly associated with work on diachronic corpora, they may be universal enough to deserve somewhat more general consideration. They could be called “The philologist’s dilemma”, “God’s truth fallacy”, and “The mystery of vanishing reliability”. The first could be described as pedagogical, the second methodological and the third pragmatic.

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Anni Sairio, Samuli Kaislaniemi, Anna Merikallio and Terttu Nevalainen

Abstract

Research into orthography in the history of English is not a simple venture. The history of English spelling is primarily based on printed texts, which fail to capture the range of variation inherent in the language; many manuscript phenomena are simply not found in printed texts. Manuscript-based corpora would be the ideal research data, but as this is resource-intensive, linguists use editions that have been produced by non-linguists. Many editions claim to retain original spellings, but in practice text is always normalized at the graph level and possibly more so. This does not preclude using such a corpus for orthographical research, but there has been no systematic way to determine the philological reliability of an edited text. In this paper we present a typological methodology we are developing for the evaluation of orthographical quality of edition-based corpora, with the aim of making the best use of bad data in the context of editions and manuscript practices. As a case study, we apply this methodology to the Early Modern and Late Modern English sections of the Corpus of Early English Correspondence.

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Tiago da Costa e Silva

Abstract

The aim of this article is to offer a reading of the poetic experience through the scope of the semiotics and pragmatism of Chares S. Peirce. Such a reading through semiotics and pragmatism unveils deeper levels of the process of interpretation involving abduction, an inference through which new meanings implied in the semantic tensions arise. Methodologically, the article begins with Roman Jakobson’s realisation that only a broader semiotical context, which breaches the boundaries of the dyadic components of significant and signified scope of structuralism, enables the access to deeper levels of poetic events. The article’s author then discusses the limitations of the dyadic relations of structuralism and, as a broader processual framework to assess poeticity, sets out to discuss the poetic experience from the perspective of pragmatism and its all-encompassing logic of abduction...

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Pascual Pérez-Paredes

useful definitions for applied linguistics. In J. H. Hulstijn and R. Schmidt (eds.). Consciousness and second language learning: Conceptual, methodological and practical issues in language learning and teaching, 11-26. Thematic issue of AILA Review - Revue de l’AILA, 11. Tavakoli, Parveneh and Peter Skehan. 2005. Strategic planning, task structure and performance testing. In R. Ellis (ed.). Planning and task performance in a second language, 239-277. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

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Anne-Christine Gardner, Marianne Hundt and Moira Kindlimann

: Methodology and data, 213-234. Bern: Peter Lang. Baker, Anne Pimlott. 2004. Hamilton, Mary (1756-1816). Oxford dictionary of national biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/48934 (accessed 24 July 2015). Bax, Randy C. 2000. A network strength scale for the study of eighteenth-century English. European Journal of English Studies 4 (3): 277-289. Bax, Randy C. 2005. Traces of Johnson in the language of Fanny Burney. International Journal of English Studies 5 (1): 159

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Laura A. Cariola

. 2011. Research methods and statistics: A critical thinking approach. Belmont: Wadsworth. Kolbe, Richard H. and Melissa S. Burnett. 1991. Content-analysis research: An examination of applications with directives for improving research reliability and objectivity. Journal of Consumer Research 18: 243-250. Krippendorff, Klaus. 2004. Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. Thousand Oaks: Sage. (First published 1980). Lacy, Stephen and Daniel Riffle. 1996. Sampling error and selecting intercoder reliability

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Mark Davies

. Davies, Mark. 2012a. Expanding horizons in historical linguistics with the 400 million word Corpus of Historical American English. Corpora 7: 121-157. Davies, Mark. 2012b. Examining recent changes in English: Some methodological issues. In T. Nevalainen and E. Closs Traugott (eds.). The Oxford handbook of the history of English, 263-287. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Davies, Mark. 2012c. Recent shifts with three nonfinite verbal complements in English: Data from the 100 million word TIME Corpus (1920s-2000s). In B. Aarts, J. Close, G

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Ute Römer, Audrey Roberson, Matthew B. O’Donnell and Nick C. Ellis

References Arppe, Antti, Gaëtanelle Gilquin, Dylan Glynn, Martin Hilpert and Arne Zeschel. 2010. Cognitive corpus linguistics: Five points of debate on current theory and methodology. Corpora 5 (1): 1-27. Bird, Steven, Edward Loper and Ewan Klein. 2009. Natural language processing with Python. Cambridge, MA: O’Reilly Media Inc. Ellis, Nick C., Matthew B. O’Donnell and Ute Römer. 2013. Usage-based language: Investigating the latent structures that underpin acquisition. Language Learning 63 (Supp. 1): 25

Open access

Edgar W. Schneider

of English Linguistics 34: 206–232. Hundt, Marianne and Geoffrey Leech. 2012. ‘Small is beautiful’: On the value of standard reference corpora for observing recent grammatical change. In T. Nevalainen and E. Closs Traugott (eds.). The Oxford handbook of the history of English , 175–188. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard. 2017. Corpora and cultural cognition: How corpus-linguistic methodology can contribute to Cultural Linguistics. In F. Sharifian (ed.). Advances in Cultural Linguistics , 477–505. Singapore: Springer Nature